In September of 1774, Dr. Joseph Warren wrote
the Suffolk Resolves.
British statesman Edmund Burke cited
the Suffolk Resolves as a major development in colonial animosity, which eventually led to the Declaration of Independence.
The Suffolk Resolves stated:
"That it is an indispensable duty which we owe to God, our country, ourselves and posterity,
by all lawful ways and means in our power to
maintain, defend and preserve those civil and religious rights and liberties, for which many of our fathers fought, bled and died, and to hand them down entire to future generations...
and that the inhabitants of those towns and districts ... do use their utmost diligence to
acquaint themselves with the art of war as soon as possible, and do, for that purpose,
appear under arms at least once every week."
On OCTOBER 26, 1774, the
Provincial Congress of Massachusetts
reorganized their defenses with one-third of their regiments being
"Minutemen," ready to fight at a minute's notice.
This followed the example of
the earliest known militia in history - Ancient Israel
, where every man was armed and always ready at a moment's notice to defend his family and his community.
E.C. Wines wrote in
Commentaries on the Laws of the Ancient Hebrews, with an Introductory Essay on Civil Society & Government
(NY: Geo. P. Putnam & Co., 1853):
"Moses' constitution made no provision for a standing army ... The whole body of citizens ... formed a national guard of defense. Thus the landholders (and every Israelite was a landholder) formed the only soldiery, known to the Mosaic constitution."
Denver University Law Review, July 15, 2013 published an article
Ancient Hebrew Militia Law, by David B. Kopel, in which he wrote:
New Englanders intensely self-identified with ancient Israel
- from the first days of settlement in early 17th century (Israel in the wilderness) to the days of the American Revolution, when New England's 'black regiment' of clergymen incited the Revolution as a religious duty,
the thirteen American colonies as the modern version of the twelve confederate tribes of Israel ...
ancient Hebrew militia law is part of the intellectual background of
the American militia system, and of
the Second Amendment ...
'from the age of twenty years up, all those
able to bear arms'
... were obliged
, to go forth 'armed to battle.' Men who failed this duty 'sinned against the Lord.'
Although God may work miracles ... the righteous ... may never force God's hand by demanding a miracle-putting good people in danger and expecting God to protecting them ..."
David B. Kopel continued:
"Israel's military system
was 'based on
the duty of every able-bodied male to bear arms and serve.
Israel relied on a militia
, in which
would spend most of their time cultivating their farms, or engaged in other economic production, and would fight only for limited periods (ideally, after the harvest), and only when necessary.
the American Revolution, most men served in their
state militias, rather than the Continental Army. Thus, they were most able to keep their farms in production, and other economic activity in progress.
This was an important reason why the United States was able to economically sustain a war that lasted eight years ..."
David B. Kopel continued in his article
Ancient Hebrew Militia Law
(Denver University Law Review, July 15, 2013):
"Another purpose of the Hebrew militia system was
the decentralization of power
, for the preservation of liberty.
, (a modern Conservative Jewish version of the Pentateuch with commentary), explains:
'Deuteronomy does not intend that the Israelites maintain a standing army... Instead, they are to have
a civilian army, or militia
, mobilized at times of need... Reliance on
rather than a standing army for military needs is another example of Deuteronomy's
dispersal of power
among different officials.'
David B. Kopel concluded:
Battles of the Bible, Chaim Herzog (a former President of Israel) and Mordechai Gichon (a professor of military history at Tel Aviv University) summarized how
the militia system preserved popular participation in the government:
The people in arms
formed the national assembly of initially
Ancient Jewish society...never gave way to absolutism. The 'people' always remained...a body with influence on the affairs of state.
This fact was instrumental not only in the preservation of the people in arms as the mainstay of the Israelite armed forces until the destruction of the First Temple (586 BC)... but also in the apparent readiness of the Israelites to bear the constant burden of military preparedness.'...
can be said to be founded on
two pillars of 'Athens and Jerusalem,'
pillar matches the
pillar in recognizing
the importance of an armed people in preserving liberty through service in a militia of all free and able-bodied men.
Massachusetts citizen soldiers
drilled on the parade ground, many times led by a deacon or pastor, then went to church for exhortation and prayer.
The Massachusetts Provincial Congress
"You ... are placed by Providence in the post of honor, because it is the post of danger ...
The eyes not only of North America and the whole British Empire, but of all Europe, are upon you.
Let us be, therefore, altogether solicitous that no disorderly behavior, nothing unbecoming our character as Americans, as citizens and Christians, be justly chargeable to us."
The Provincial Congress issued a Resolution to Massachusetts Bay, 1774:
Resistance to tyranny becomes the Christian and social duty of
each individual ...
Continue steadfast, and with a proper sense of your dependence on God,
nobly defend those rights which heaven gave
, and no man ought to take from us."
On July 6, 1775, the Continental Congress passed
"The Declaration of the Causes and Necessity for Taking Up Arms," composed by Thomas Jefferson, to explain to the British the presence of militiamen from several colonies gathering near Boston:
"We most solemnly, before God and the world, declare, that, exerting the utmost energy of those powers, which our beneficent Creator hath graciously bestowed upon us,
the arms we have been compelled by our enemies to assume, we will, in defiance of every hazard...employ for the preservation of our liberties;
being with one mind resolved to die freemen rather than to live slaves...
With a humble confidence in the mercies of the Supreme and impartial
Josiah Quincy stated:
we are determined that
wheresoever, whensoever, or howsoever we shall be called to make our exit, we will die free men.
On June 17, 1775,
John Adams wrote to his wife about the Continental Congress' decision to declare a Day of Public Humiliation, Fasting, and Prayer:
"We have appointed a Continental fast. Millions will be upon their knees at once before their great Creator,
His forgiveness and blessing;
His smiles on American Council and arms
The South Carolina Constitution stated March 26, 1776:
"The colonists were therefore driven to
the necessity of taking up arms
, to repel force by force, and
to defend themselves
and their properties against lawless invasions and depredations."
Georgia Rules and Regulations, 1776, stated:
"Whereas, the unwise and iniquitous system of administration obstinately persisted in by the British Parliament and Ministry against the good people of America
hath at length driven the latter
to take up arms
as their last resource for the preservation of their rights and liberties which God and the Constitution gave them."
New York Constitution, April 20, 1777, stated:
Every man who enjoys the protection of society
to be prepared...to defend it... T
he militia...at all times...shall be armed...and in readiness for service.
That all such of the inhabitants of this State being of the people called
as, from scruples of conscience,
may be averse to the bearing of arms
, be there from
by the legislature; and
do pay to the State
such sums of money,
in lieu of their personal service
Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, May 29, 1790, stated:
"All men, have an equal, natural and unalienable right to the free exercise of religion...
That the people have a right peaceably to assemble together...
That the people have a right to freedom of speech and of writing, and publishing their sentiments...
That the people have a right to keep and bear arms."
Vermont Constitution, July 4, 1786, stated:
"That the people have a right to bear arms, for the defense of themselves and the State."
New Hampshire's Ratifying Convention heard Harvard President Samuel Langdon's address "The Republic of the Israelites an Example to the American States."
Then they voted to ratify the U.S. Constitution, being the ninth State to do so, thus putting it into effect, June 21, 1788.
After ratifying the U.S. Constitution, New Hampshire instructed:
"Congress shall never disarm any Citizen."
President James Monroe stated:
"Of the liberty of conscience in matters of religious faith, of speech and of the press; of the trial by jury of the vicinage (neighborhood) in civil and criminal cases; of the benefit of the writ of habeas corpus;
of the right to keep and bear arms...
If these rights are well defined, and secured against encroachments, it is impossible that
government should ever degenerate into tyranny
America's founders went to great lengths to craft the
"secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity.
two ways to change the Constitution.
One is tedious, requiring the majority will of the people, as outlined in Article 5:
two thirds of both Houses
shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or ... the Legislatures of
two thirds of the several States
, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case ... when ratified by the Legislatures of
three fourths of the several States
, or by Conventions in
three fourths thereof
There are efforts to change the definition of words in the Second Amendment, which reads:
"A well-regulated militia,
being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed."
"proper working order."
The ACLU argued that the term "the people" should be redefined to mean "the state militia," as it posted on its website section "Gun Control" (3/4/02):
"We believe that the constitutional
right to bear arms is primarily a collective one, intended mainly to protect the right of the states to maintain militias...
The ACLU therefore believes that the Second Amendment
does not confer an unlimited right upon individuals to own guns."
If the ACLU succeeded in redefining of "THE PEOPLE" to mean "THE STATE MILITIA," the Second Amendment would read:
"A well-regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of (
) 'THE STATE MILITIA' to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed."
The unreasonableness of this redefinition is revealed when applied to the rest of the Constitution and Bill of Rights:
PREAMBLE: We (
the people) "THE STATE MILITIAS" of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union... establish this Constitution...
ARTICLE 1, SECTION 2: The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second year by (
the people) "THE STATE MILITIAS"...
FIRST AMENDMENT: Congress shall make no law... abridging... the right of (
the people) "THE STATE MILITIAS" peaceably to assemble...
4TH AMENDMENT: The right of (
the people) "THE STATE MILITIAS" to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated...
5TH AMENDMENT: No (
person) "STATE MILITIA" shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment of indictment of a grand jury...
9TH AMENDMENT: The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by (
the people) "THE STATE MILITIAS"...
10TH AMENDMENT: The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to (
the people) "THE STATE MILITIAS."
18TH AMENDMENT: The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by (
the people) "THE STATE MILITIAS."
Clearly, the ACLU's redefinition of "the people" to mean "the state militia" is untenable.
Justice William J. Brennan Jr.
, explained in
U.S. v. Verdugo-Urquidez
(494 U.S. 247, 288, 1990), that "the people" means "the people":
'the people' is better understood as a rhetorical counterpoint 'to the government'
... that rights that were reserved to 'the people' were to protect all those subject to 'the government'...
The Bill of Rights did not purport to 'create' rights. Rather, they designed the Bill of Rights to prohibit our government from infringing rights and liberties presumed to be pre-existing."
U.S. v. Verdugo-Urquidez (1990), the Supreme Court wrote:
The people' protected by the Fourth Amendment, and by the First and
Second Amendments, and to whom rights and powers are reserved in the Ninth and Tenth Amendments, refers to a class of
persons who are part of a national community...
The Fourth Amendment's drafting history shows that its purpose was to
protect the people
of the United States
against arbitrary action by their own government
Democrat Vice-President Hubert Humphrey stated:
"The right of citizens to bear arms is just one more guarantee against arbitrary government, one more
safeguard against the tyranny
which now appears remote in America, but which historically has proved to be always possible." (David T. Hardy,
The Second Amendment as a Restraint on State and Federal Firearms Restrictions;
Restricting Handguns: The Liberal Skeptics Speak Out,
The U.S. Constitution mentions "militias" in Article 1, Section 8.
explained at the Massachusetts Convention to ratify the U.S. Constitution, 1788:
the said Constitution be never construed
to authorize Congress to infringe the just liberty of the press, or the rights of conscience; or
to prevent the people of the United States, who are peaceable citizens, from keeping their own arms
James Madison wrote in
Federalist No. 46, published in the New York Packet, January 29, 1788:
"The ultimate authority... resides in the people alone...
The advantage of being armed, which the Americans possess over the people of almost every other nation...forms a barrier against the enterprises of ambition...
In the several kingdoms of
governments are afraid to trust the people with arms
Attempts of activist judges to redefine words was warned against by
Thomas Jefferson in a letter to Supreme Court Justice William Johnson, June 12, 1823:
"On every question of construction, carry ourselves back to the time when the Constitution was adopted, recollect the spirit manifested in the debates, and
instead of trying what meaning may be squeezed out of the text, or invented against it, conform to the probable one in which it was passed.
The individual citizen's right to be armed was acknowledged in the Supreme Court recent cases of
McDonald v. Chicago, 561 U.S. 742 (2010), and
District of Columbia v. Heller, 554 U.S. 570 (2008), in which the Court stated:
The Second Amendment protects an individual right to possess a firearm unconnected with service in a militia, and to use that arm for traditionally lawful purposes, such as self-defense within the home. (Pp. 2-53)";
"The operative clause's text and history demonstrate that it connotes
an individual right to keep and bear arms. (Pp. 2-22)";
Anti-federalists feared that the Federal Government would disarm the people
in order to disable this citizens' militia, enabling a politicized standing army or a select militia to rule. The response was
to deny Congress power to abridge the ancient right of individuals to keep and bear arms
, so that the ideal of a citizens' militia would be preserved. (Pp. 22-28)."
From the time of America's Revolution, generations of oppressed peoples throughout the world looked to the people of America to maintain freedom.
In 1967, after 14 years in a Communist prison in Romania, Rev. Richard Wurmbrand stated:
"America is the hope of every enslaved man, because it is the last bastion of freedom in the world.
Only America has the power and spiritual resources to stand as a barrier between militant Communism and the people of the world.
It is the last 'dike' holding back the rampaging flood waters of militant Communism.
If it crumples, there is no other dike, no other dam; no other line of defense to fall back upon..."
Rev. Wurmbrand ended:
"America is the last hope of millions of enslaved peoples. They look to it as their second fatherland. In it lies their hopes and prayers.
I have seen fellow-prisoners in Communist prisons beaten, tortured, with 50 pounds of chains on their legs-praying for America... that the dike will not crumple; that it will remain free."