I GCC Project on the Study of Innovation and Technology in China
June 9, 2016
In This Issue

Welcome to the second issue of China D-Tech Watch, which is produced by the Study of Innovation and Technology of China project at the University of California Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation. This is a bi-monthly digest of important reporting on Chinese defense and civil-military science, technology, and industrial matters. An extensive range of Chinese and English language news publications, specialized journals, and official and independent websites are covered. Each issue will have a short analysis of a topical subject matter.

Tai Ming Cheung

Comments can be sent to Eric Anderson, Research Analyst, at  eanderson@ucsd.edu. 
SITC News Team
UC Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation
Analysis by the SITC Team: 
National Conference on Science and Technology
China held its seventh National Science and Technology (S&T) Conference in late May 2016, in combination with the biennial conference of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Chinese Academy of Engineering, and the national congress of the China Association for Science and Technology. Since the first National S&T Conference took place in 1978, this is an important and irregular meeting in China's S&T calendar where the central government announces key policies and strategies to meet long-term S&T development goals.
SASTIND issued a new document titled "National Defense Industry Measurement Specification System." According to the article, this marks a significant achievement in SASTIND's work toward integrated development of defense industry measurement.
SASTIND's party group organized a meeting to study the key point of the National Conference on Science and Technology and Xi Jinping's speech during the conference. The meeting formed the goal to make defense science, technology and industry the leader of China's innovation.
6 3 日,国防科工局召开党组会议,传达全国科技创新大会精神,认真学习习近平总书记、李克强总理重要讲话精神,结合国防科技工业实际,研究贯彻落实的意见措施。国防科工局党组书记、局长许达哲主持会议并讲话。

Xi Jinping's speech at the National Conference on Science and Technology drew great attention within military S&T experts community. They are encouraged and motived by Xi's speech to build a strong army with the help of innovation.
中共中央 国务院印发《国家创新驱动发展战略纲要
China on Thursday unveiled a guideline for a national strategy that maps out three major steps to promote the country's innovation-driven development. The document, jointly published by the Communist Party of China (CPC) Central Committee and the State Council, pledges to build China into an innovative nation by 2020, and an international leader in innovation by 2030. The blueprint vows to make China a world powerhouse of scientific and technological innovation by 2050, the third step of the strategy.
新华社北京 5 19 日电 近日,中共中央、国务院印发了《国家创新驱动发展战略纲要》,并发出通知,要求各地区各部门结合实际认真贯彻执行。

The National Defense S&T Industry 13th Five Year Plan Leading Small Group conducted its second meeting on May 26, 2016. During the meeting, "13th Five-Year National Defense Science, Technology and Industry Development Plan (Draft)" was reviewed and approved in principle.
2016 5 26 日,国防科工局在京召开国防科技工业 " 十三五 " 规划工作领导小组第二次会议,审议并原则通过《 " 十三五 " 国防科技工业发展规划 ( 草案 ) 》,着眼建设中国特色先进国防科技工业体系,研究谋划 " 十三五 " 及未来一段时期发展蓝图。

The State Council recently released a guideline document promoting integration of manufacturing and the internet. Combining manufacturing with the internet will help revitalize traditional industries and release more growth potential, according to the document. The government also pledged supportive policies in financing, taxation, land and human resources to develop internet-based manufacturing.
新华社北京 520日电 经李克强总理签批,国务院日前印发《关于深化制造业与互联网融合发展的指导意见》(以下简称《意见》),部署深化制造业与互联网融合发展,协同推进"中国制造2025""互联网+"行动,加快制造强国建设。
The National Development and Reform Commission, Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, and the Central Information Office issued the "Internet + Artificial Intelligence Three-Year Action Plan", aiming to build an artificial intelligence eco-system by 2018.
为落实《关于积极推进 "互联网+"行动的指导意见》(国发[2015]40号),加快人工智能产业发展,国家发展改革委、科技部、工业和信息化部、中央网信办制定了《"互联网+"人工智能三年行动实施方案》。现印发你们,请认真贯彻落实。
China is super-sizing science. From building the biggest experiments the world has ever seen to rolling out the latest medical advances on a massive scale and pushing the boundaries of exploration from the deepest ocean to outer space - China's scientific ambitions are immense. Just a few decades ago the nation barely featured in the world science rankings. Now, in terms of research spending and the number of scientific papers published, it stands only behind the US. But despite this rapid progress, China faces a number of challenges. Here are five key science projects that illustrate its enormous strengths, as well as some of its weaknesses, and may help answer the question whether China can become a global leader in research.

Chinese President Xi Jinping addressed an event conflating the national conference on science and technology, the biennial conference of the country's two top think tanks, the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of Engineering, and the national congress of the China Association for Science and Technology, in Beijing, capital of China, May 30, 2016. Xi warned that the country faces a major science and technology (S&T) bottleneck and a big gap in innovation capacity.
全国科技创新大会、中国科学院第十八次院士大会和中国工程院第十三次院士大会、中国科学技术协会第九次全国代表大会 30日上午在人民大会堂隆重召开。中共中央总书记、国家主席、中央军委主席习近平出席大会并发表重要讲话。他强调,科技兴则民族兴,科技强则国家强。今天,我们在这里召开这个盛会,就是要在我国发展新的历史起点上,把科技创新摆在更加重要位置,吹响建设世界科技强国的号角。实现"两个一百年"奋斗目标,实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦,必须坚持走中国特色自主创新道路,面向世界科技前沿、面向经济主战场、面向国家重大需求,加快各领域科技创新,掌握全球科技竞争先机。这是我们提出建设世界科技强国的出发点。

The Chinese government will cut red tape in science and research funding by removing unnecessary administrative barriers for universities and research institutions so as to better stimulate the enthusiasm of academics. Arrangements of the upcoming improvement were decided during the State Council's executive meeting on Wednesday, chaired by Premier Li Keqiang.
两天前,习近平总书记、李克强总理在全国科技创新大会上的讲话,引发全场科研人员长时间的热烈掌声。两天后的 6 1 日,完善中央财政科研项目资金管理的相关措施,就摆上了国务院常务会议的讨论桌。

The Advanced Aeronautical Materials Technology Development Forum was held on May 25 in Beijing. Gan Yong, academician from Chinese Academy of Engineering, noted that the next decade will be an important era of aero-engine development, which puts higher requirements on aeronautical materials.
由北京航空材料研究院(以下简称航材院)主办的 "先进航空材料技术发展论坛"25日在京举行,本次论坛以"先进航空材料技术发展"为主题,来自国内外材料领域300多名院士、专家、学者出席,共商航空材料发展大计,推动先进航空材料技术的进步和跨越式发展。
The Hongdu Aviation Industries Group celebrated its 65th anniversary by unveiling an advanced L-15 Falcon trainer jet equipped with bombs and radar, thought to be a passive electronically scanned array (PSEA), that will help accuracy in airborne combat. The Falcon has not been known to carry weapons, until the Hongdu video was released and made the rounds on Chinese websites earlier this month. In the video, the jet can be seen with a centered-fuselage pod carrying a 23 mm cannon, PL-5II air-to-air missiles, and underwing fuel tanks.
China is still testing its first stealth fighter, the J-20, but the warplane will soon enter service, the air force said, after pictures circulated in Chinese media suggesting it had already joined the active fleet.
The PLA Air Force refuted the rumor that the J-20 fighter has been deployed to troops on May 31.
The domestically developed Y-20 heavy-lifting transport plane will soon be delivered to buyers, a project manager said on Thursday.
At the ongoing technology innovation exhibition in Beijing, which features achievements from the past five years, Commercial Aircraft Corporation of China Ltd. (COMAC) is showing its future smart cockpits to the public for the first time.
China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC) has recently tested a new version of the Caihong-4 (CH-4) "Rainbow" drone equipped with satellite control and improved EO payloads supporting HD standards. During the test last month, the drone launched AR-1 missiles which struck their targets with high precision. Two tests were conducted, one with the current version of the aircraft, fitted with a new SATCOM data link, the second test also employed an upgraded electro-optical payload.

China will release a white paper explaining the development strategy and policy assertions of the Beidou system.
China plans to launch 30 Beidou navigation satellites during the 13th five-year plan period (2016-2020), capping its three-step strategy to build a global navigation system by 2020. The first batch of 18 satellites will be launched before 2018 to cover countries along the routes in "the Belt and Road" initiative, said Ran Chengqi, director of the China Satellite Navigation Office, during the China Satellite Navigation Conference, which opened on Wednesday.
China is drafting a regulation to regulate activities in the field of satellite navigation, establish the legal status of Beidou as a national spatial information infrastructure, and promote the application of Beidou and development of the satellite navigation and application industry.
记者 519日从正在长沙召开的第七届中国卫星导航学术年会上获悉,目前我国正在制订《卫星导航条例》,并已列入《国务院2016年立法工作计划》。这将成为我国首部卫星导航领域的行政法规,保护北斗系统提供可靠服务,提高北斗系统法制化管理水平。
The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, a world-leading aerospace society, has awarded its top prize on ground testing to a Chinese scientist for the first time, demonstrating China's great strides in the field, academic journal Acta Aerodynamica Sinica reported recently. The award was given to Jiang Zonglin for work in hypersonic reproduction wind tunnel technology. This marks the first time the award has been given to an Asian recipient.
美国航空航天学会近日公布,中国科学院力学研究所研究员姜宗林因创立高超声速复现风洞技术,荣获 2016年度美国航空航天学会地面试验奖,成为该奖项设立四十多年来首位获奖的亚洲学者。
SASTIND's chief engineer Tian Yulong stated that China will complete drafting of its first Space Law by the end of this year during a media conference. He also stated that SASTIND will issue a "Space Development 13th Five-Year Plan", a "Space Science 13th Five-Year Plan" and 2016 China Space White Paper this year.
Alibaba Group and China North Industries Group Corporation (also known as Norinco) announced a joint venture to widen the Beidou navigation system's civilian application. The new company, QXWZ.com ( https://www.qxwz.com/ ), has already set up 150 frame sites and close to 600 base station networks. It will provide real-time location and navigation services with sub-meter accuracy. The National Beidou Ground-based Augmentation System is currently operational and is expected to increase the precision of Beidou.
阿里巴巴集团正与中国兵器工业集团公司,共同推进中国自行研制的全球卫星导航系统 --北斗卫星导航系统在民用化市场的落地。518日,兵器集团与阿里巴巴宣布合资成立的千寻位置网络有限公司宣布,已建成的150个框架网站和近600个基准站网络投入运行,正式在全国范围提供亚米精度的实时动态定位导航服务。国家北斗地基增强系统正式投入运行,系统能增强北斗定位的准确性。
China is in discussions with several Arab nations in an effort to promote the country's highly-advanced Beidou satellite system. Ran Chengqi, director of the China Satellite Navigation Office, revealed that China is currently in talks with Saudi Arabia and Egypt who are keen in utilizing the satellite-based positioning and navigational system, reported the China Daily.
In accordance of the national strategy of development of big data, China Aerospace Science & Industry Corporation is developing China's first Internet platform for industry--aerospace cloud network, to create a new form of aerospace industry.
中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所周成虎院士 29日表示,人类正在进入移动加大数据加大网络加云计算的"移、大、云"时代。现在一个人一天产生的数据比以前一个人一年产生的数据还要多。数据在云端,可以计算。大数据已经成为国家战略。
China will launch the world's first quantum communications satellite in July as part of its growing programme of ambitious space science missions. The pioneering QUantum Experiments at Space Scale (QUESS) mission will delve into the counter-intuitive quantum world, including the spooky phenomenon of quantum entanglement. The mission will be launched on the Long March 2D rocket from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Centre in the Gobi Desert. The 500kg satellite, also referred to as the Quantum Science Satellite (QSS), will enter into a circular Sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 600 km, where it will stay for two years.
中国规划5颗新科学卫星 有望取得重大创新突破
China will put five new satellites into space within approximately the next five years as part of the country's fast-expanding space science program, a senior scientist said on Wednesday.
中国计划在未来 5年左右研制并发射5颗新的科学卫星,有望在空间科学、技术和应用方面取得一系列重大创新突破。专家表示,空间科学卫星是人类认知自然取得重大突破最重要和最直接的手段之一,对宇宙的探索和研究可使中国在基础科学方面不断产出重大原创性成果,并将引领中国实现从航天大国到航天强国的跨越发展,为航天产业升级提供新的增长点。
China's first next-generation Long March 7 rocket is now being assembled at the Wenchang Satellite Launch Centre after being delivered by ship ahead of launch next month.
Clearly China has come much further than the Soviets in developing ballistic anti-ship weapons, leveraging their massive technologically sophisticated industrial base while looking to other US weapons platforms, like the Pershing II, which utilizes a maneuverable warhead, or MaRV, to enhance its capabilities. But Beijing may have challenges the further afield as they try to lob warheads at any moving target, especially at a target that isn't sitting still and will deploy the latest of countermeasures.
A space tracking, telemetry and command facility operated by a unit of China's People's Liberation Army is nearing completion at a site in Patagonia, Argentina. The new base, the first of its kind outside of China, includes steerable parabolic antennas 13.5 and 35 meters in diameter, computer & engineering facilities, lodgings for technical staff, and a $10 million electric power plant. Chinese and Argentinian officials announced in late April 2016 that the station will become operational in March 2017.
China is on course to be manufacturing and supplying at least 10 percent of the world's satellites by 2020, according to a top space researcher. Yuan Minhui, director of the Beijing Institute of Space Science and Technology Information, told China Daily that Chinese-developed satellites would account for at least a tenth of around 1,000 satellites projected by a consultancy to be launched by 2020 to meet market demand.
The Long March 2F launch vehicle that will launch China's Shenzhou-11 crewed mission in October has passed factory assessment tests in Tianjin, North China. The Shenzhou-11 mission will see two astronauts travel in the spacecraft to the new Tiangong-2 space lab that will be launched in September.

China's development of submarines aims to maintain the country's sovereignty and maritime interests rather than to seek for hegemony, Liang Fang, a military expert said in an interview with People's Daily Online.
China's about to join an exclusive club for nuclear powers. After decades of development, 2016 could be the year the Chinese navy finally sends its ballistic-missile submarines-"SSBN" is the Pentagon's designation-to sea for the first time for operational patrols with live, nuclear-tipped rockets. If indeed the Jin-class subs head to sea this year, China will achieve a level of nuclear strike capability that, at present, just two countries-the United States and Russia-can match or exceed.
Chinese military expert Cao Weidong said in an interview with Today's Asia that if the project has already progressed to the point of installing a ski ramp deck, then the carrier's launch must not be far off. But the remaining construction still needs some time, Cao added.
In a recent interview with CCTV's Focus Today program, military expert Yin Zhuo said the second China-made aircraft carrier might adopt the Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System (EMALS) pending the final decision.
China Shipbuilding Industry Corp, one of the country's two major shipbuilding conglomerates, plans to integrate six of its shipyards into three. It will focus more on building high-end vessels as the industry remains in choppy waters amid waning global demand. Officials at the State-owned company said the plan is to simplify its management structure and make itself more proficient in building ships such as very-large crude and ore carriers, bulk carriers, and cement and cattle vessels, which will allow it to diversify its options and broaden its customer base.
中船重工:聚力研制深海装备 服务国家战略需求
China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation is developing deep-sea equipment that can achieve mass production, according to its Chairman Hu Wenming.
China is building a modern and regionally powerful navy with a limited but growing capability  for conducting operations beyond China's near-seas region. Observers of Chinese and U.S.  military forces view China's improving naval capabilities as posing a potential challenge in the  Western Pacific to the U.S. Navy's ability to achieve and maintain control of blue-water ocean  areas in wartime-the first such challenge the U.S. Navy has faced since the end of the Cold War.  More broadly, these observers view China's naval capabilities as a key element of an emerging  broader Chinese military challenge to the long-standing status of the United States as the leading  military power in the Western Pacific. The question of how the United States should respond to  China's military modernization effort, including its naval modernization effort, is a key issue in  U.S. defense planning.
China's first domestically built carrier, "Type 001A", is making brisk progress in its Dalian drydock. Tracing its design to the Soviet Admiral Kuznetsov class of aircraft carriers, the Type 001A will displace around 60,000-70,000 tons, is powered by steam turbines, and will carry between 30 and 40 helicopters and J-15 fighter jets. Type 001A first began construction in late 2014, and is expected to be launched in 2017, with commissioning in 2019-2020 timeframe. Since the beginning of the year, many modules have been assembled, including the below-deck hangar bay, openings for aircraft elevators, and in new photos, the ship's ski jump soon to be welded to the carrier's front.

China's Ministry of Industry and Information Technology Minister Miao Wei gave an opening speech during the first Global 5G Event in Beijing, capital of China, May 31, 2016. In the speech, he put forth four areas to promote 5G innovation-accelerating innovation, strengthening the frequency of co-ordination, deepening pragmatic cooperation, and promoting the integration of development.
"Our near-peer competitors are no longer near peers," Rear Adm. Mike Darrah, Naval Air Systems Command's program executive officer for unmanned systems and strike weapons told an audience at the Navy League's Sea, Air and Space symposium, the largest maritime exposition in the US which wrapped up on Wednesday. "In some cases, they have gone beyond us," he added, as quote by The National Interest magazine.
China's National Science and Technology Major Project "Prototype development of double work station lithography system" passed inspection, making China one of the few countries with development capabilities of ultra-precision machinery and sophisticated controlling technology.
对于普通人来说,光刻机或许是一个陌生的名词,但它却是制造大规模集成电路的核心装备,每颗芯片诞生之初,都要经过光刻技术的锻造。记者 13日从清华大学获悉,国家科技重大专项"光刻机双工件台系统样机研发"通过验收,使我国成为少数能研制光刻机双工件台这一超精密机械与测控技术领域尖端系统的国家之一。
On Tuesday, China's Premier Li Keqiang and senior ministers gathered foreign and Chinese high-tech executives in the capital of Guizhou to stump for the goal of building a big data industry. Big data is a hot computing field that involves crunching the massive amounts of data collected by Internet companies to discover trends. Guizhou wants to attract everything from the server farms that store the data to the engineers that design programs to sift through the information.

China has already begun to establish quantum communications networks in several cities, and is currently building a 1,000-kilometer quantum communications line connecting Beijing and Shanghai. A quantum communications satellite will launch in July.

Key equipment of Hualong One, the assessment piece of the main conduit passed inspection, indicating that China has mastered the design and manufacturing technology of the main conduit of Hualong One.
近日,由中核集团核动力院设计,二重集团制造的华龙一号关键设备 --主管道评定件通过验收,主要技术指标达国际先进水平。这标志着我国自主掌握了华龙一号主管道的设计和制造技术,为打造中国核电自主品牌,实现"走出去"起到了积极作用。
Despite U.S. pressure, China appears unwilling to expand dialogue with the United States on nuclear weapons. At a discussion at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace on May 5, U.S. under secretary of state for arms control and international security, Rose Gottemoeller, pushed for more robust bilateral dialogue with China on nuclear weapons. Gottemoeller explained that China's comprehensive program of military modernization - including nuclear modernization - necessitates deeper discussions.

兵器两大集团经济效益提升 实现"十三五"良好开局
Two armament conglomerates, China North Industries Group Corporation and China South Industries Group Corporation, improved their economic performance according to their first quarter report.
今年以来,中国兵器工业集团公司、中国兵器装备集团公司砥砺奋进,扎实工作,采取一系列有效措施,经济规模和效益稳步提升,增速高于中央企业平均水平,实现 "十三五"良好开局。

The State Administration of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense signed a strategic agreement with All-China Federation of Industry & Commerce to promote two-way transfer of military and civilian advanced technology.
A state civil and military technology trading center opened in Mianyang. It is the first authorized dual-use technology trading platform, which opens a new chapter of the civil-military integration work of Mianyang.

Chinese President Xi Jinping said the nation's military budget would not be able to maintain a "normal growth" rate because of the ­economic downturn and called on the army to be prudent in its spending. In the second of a series of ­articles elaborating on the president's vision for the army, the PLA Daily on Tuesday quoted Xi as saying that military resources were not being properly managed, and the army should avoid big projects that required a lot of money but did not yield results.

As a way to implement the innovation-driven development strategy and civil-military integration strategy, SASTIND will support construction of 50 colleges and universities jointly with related ministries and local governments during the 13th Five Year period.
为深入贯彻落实创新驱动发展战略和军民融合发展战略,国防科工局近日决定, "十三五"期间继续与有关部门和省(市)共建近50所高等院校。
The Ministry of Science and Technology organized a conference call to promote commercialization of research findings. Minister Wan Gang encouraged all sectors, including local governments, research institutes, universities and enterprises to work together to achieve this goal.
The Chinese Academy of Military Sciences and Stockholm-based Institute for Security & Development Policy met for their 9th joint discussion meeting. The meeting focused on cybersecurity and focused on four major topics: network defense and military operations, cyber counter-terrorism, private sector and critical infrastructure, and cyber policy development and international cooperation.
中国军事科学院与瑞典安全和发展政策研究所第九届联合研讨会 24日在瑞典首都斯德哥尔摩举行。本次研讨会以"网络安全"为主题。中国和欧洲多名相关领域的官员、学者汇聚一堂,就"网络防御与军事行动""网络反恐""私人领域和关键基础设施""网络政策制定和国际合作"四个话题进行了对话讨论。

China held its seventh National Science and Technology (S&T) Conference in late May 2016, in combination with the biennial conference of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Chinese Academy of Engineering, and the national congress of the China Association for Science and Technology. Since the first National S&T Conference took place in 1978, this is an important and irregular meeting in China's S&T calendar where the central government announces key policies and strategies to meet long-term S&T development goals.

The first National S&T Conference was held in 1978 and this and many of its subsequent conferences stand as pivot points in China's S&T strategy. At the first National S&T Conference, Deng Xiaoping delivered important remarks establishing S&T as a productive force and redefining S&T personnel as the working class, reversing much of the constraints and critiques on S&T during the cultural revolution. The "Outline of the National S&T Development Plan, 1978-1985 (Draft)", China's third long-term S&T development plan, was issued at this meeting.
The next National S&T Conference wasn't held until 1985 but also handed down important decisions on reforming China's S&T system, including introducing market forces and orienting China's largely state-led S&T system to respond more efficiently to economic needs of the country. The third national S&T conference took place a decade later in 1995, and introduced China's new development strategy with Jiang Zemin's call to "rejuvenate the nation with science, technology, and education."
The 1999 National S&T Conference targeted the promotion of technological innovation and the development and industrialization of high technology, both themes of which formed the bedrock for medium- and long-term S&T development. These themes were written deep into China's S&T thinking and implementation at the 2006 National S&T Conference, where the transformational National Medium- and Long-Term Plan for Science and Technology Development (2006-2020) (MLP) was issued. The MLP included tasks, key research areas, policies and measures for building an innovation-oriented country and famously embedded the notion of indigenous innovation in China's S&T strategy. At the most recent National S&T Conference held in 2012, China's top leaders set new targets to enhance innovation capabilities and detailed policies to promote innovation activities within enterprises.
In last month's conference, President Xi Jinping announced a new goal for China to "become one of the most innovative countries by 2020, an innovation leader by 2030, and a global S&T power by the 100th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China in 2049." Xi further stressed the critical role that science, technology, and innovation play in national development and praised the many advances that China has made in building its S&T capacity. However, Xi warned that China still struggles with major bottlenecks in many S&T fields and continues to face large gaps in innovation capacity.
To reach his new goals, Xi emphasized the need for strategic support of S&T development, particularly in the selection of S&T focus areas. Four fields, including advanced materials, pharmaceuticals, high-end medical devices, and space technology, were highlighted in his speech to launch this new focus. It can be expected that new major, state-led S&T projects and programs will emerge in these areas. Xi also called for a pivot away from a factor-driven development pattern to an innovation-driven one, a need to replace major S&T decision-making based on whims of officials with institutionalized mechanisms, and a more encouraging environment for S&T personnel.
A few follow-on policies were announced immediately after the National S&T Conference, and more are expected to follow. For example, the State Council said that it would cut red tape in S&T research funding by removing administrative barriers for universities and research institutions as a way to stimulate interest. The State Administration of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense (SASTIND) organized a Party group meeting to study the spirit of the conference and Xi's speech, with the goal of making the defense industry a pioneer in this acceleration in innovation development.
This conference was not the first time that those new goals were mentioned. The year 2020 has been a consistent future benchmark of China's progress as stated in the 2006 MLP, which set many S&T and innovation objectives to reach by 2020. Just a couple weeks prior to Xi's speech, the other goals of 2030 and 2049 were included in a document issued by the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, the "Outline for National Innovation-driven Development Strategy", which was hailed as a blueprint for China to implement its innovation-driven strategy. It is unclear, however, what the difference is between becoming "one of the most innovative countries" and becoming "a global S&T power." Neither the outline nor Xi's speech give a clear definition of the difference between those goals, but the outline provides some targets for each period, although mostly soft measures. Xi's speech reinforced the key points of this outline and raised the goals set out in the outline to the level of a national strategy. His notion of strategic selection of S&T focus areas also indicates a new trend in China's S&T thinking. Right now, of course, it is still early to tell whether China will achieve those goals.