First Item: Powder Tester
The first object is an eprouvette or gunpowder tester. To determine the quality of powder a small amount is placed in the tiny vertical barrel, the muzzle of which is covered with a flap connected to the notched and calibrated wheel. The flintlock on the side is primed and, with a squeeze of the trigger, the powder sample is ignited. The force of the explosion is conveyed to the calibrated wheel so the tester can measure the strength of the powder. The most imaginative visitor guess on this was an "eighteenth-century pizza cutter!"