any famous composers wrote greatly loved Christmas music.
George Frideric Handel wrote his oratorio
Johann Sebastian Bach wrote his
Twenty years after composer
Johann Sebastian Bach died,
Ludwig van Beethoven was born in Bonn, Germany, and baptized on DECEMBER 17, 1770.
Bach lived during the Baroque period,
Beethoven lived in the Classical and the Romantic eras.
Beethoven was a pupil of the Austrian composer
Hayden performed on
Christmas Day, December 25, 1781, during the reign of Austrian Emperor Joseph II, the "music king,"
for visiting Russian grand duke and grand duchess, Paul I and Maria Feodorovna.
In attendance at the performance was another Austrian composer,
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, who had performed on
Christmas Eve the night before.
Another contemporary was composer
Felix Mendelssohn, grandson of the Jewish philosopher Moses Mendelssohn, who wrote the tune which was used for
Charles Wesley's "Hark! The Herald Angels Sing."
Beethoven encouraged the young Hungarian pianist
Franz Liszt, who wrote his
Christmas Tree Suite in 1873-76.
Another contemporary was Austrian composer
Franz Schubert, who wrote the tune to which
"Ave Maria" was set.
Ludwig van Beethoven
was first taught to play by his harsh father, who became an alcoholic.
After his mother died,
took responsibility to support the family.
both went blind later in life due to botched eye-cataract surgeries, young
began growing deaf at the age 26, initially having difficulty hearing higher frequencies.
was giving piano lessons to a Hungarian countess and they fell in love.
He was not allowed to marry her, though, as he was a commoner from a lower social class.
later dedicated his "Moonlight" Sonata No. 14 to her.
planned to dedicate his Third Symphony to Napoleon.
When it became clear Napoleon had plans to
and declare himself an emperor,
scratched his name off the title page so violently a hole was made in the paper.
On August 11, 1809, while
was living with his younger brother Carl and his wife in Vienna, Napoleon bombarded the city.
The thunderous cannon explosions were so loud that
feared it would destroy what was left of his hearing, so he hid in his brother's cellar and covered his ears with pillows.
Carl contracted tuberculosis, and
spent a small fortune caring for him.
When Carl died,
became part guardian of his son, Karl.
appealed to his other brother Johann to marry the woman he was co-habitating with.
In 1811, with his hearing fading,
failed at an attempt to perform his Piano Concerto No. 5.
He never performed publicly again.
He continued writing and produced some of the world's most beautiful symphonies, concertos and sonatas.
met with German author
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.
finished his famous Ninth Symphony being completely deaf.
At the conclusion of the Ninth Symphony's first public performance,
turned around to see the audience applauding tumultuously, but could hear nothing, and wept.
Ninth Symphony included a 4th movement which was a choral setting of
Friedrich Schiller's "Ode to Joy",
a poem first published in 1786 and made the Anthem of Europe in 1972.
fell ill, and died during a storm on March 26, 1827. At the moment of his death there was an immense peal of thunder.
He was 56 years old.
Ludwig van Beethoven
was an inspiration to composers, such as
who had a marble bust of
in his home overlooking the spot where he composed.
Robert Schumann composed an "Album for the Young" for Advent and Christmas 1848.
Johannes Braham wrote the most recognizable
, which included in the original German words a Christmas reference:
"Guten Abend, gute Nacht [Good evening, good night.]
von Englein bewacht [By angels watched,]
die zeigen im Traum [Who show you in your dream]
dir Christkindleins Baum [the Christ-child's tree.]
Schlaf nun selig und süß [Sleep now blissfully and sweetly,]
schau im Traum 's Paradies." [see the paradise in your dream.]
arranged for an ensemble to give surprise performance of
" as a birthday present to his wife, Cosima, after the birth of their son Siegfried.
That same year, 1870,
Richard Wagner wrote an essay commemorating the one hundredth anniversary of
"Surveying the historical advance which the art of Music made through
Beethoven, we may define it as ... far beyond the region of the aesthetically Beautiful, into the sphere of the Sublime."
President Jimmy Carter noted while visiting Bonn, July 14, 1978:
"As the world's people speak and work and live together, we all could well remember the poem of Friedrich Schiller, immortally put to music by the great
, a son of Bonn, the 'Ode to Joy':
'Alle Menschen werden Bruder Wo dein sanfter Flitg el weilt.'"
('All mankind shall be brothers where thy gentle wings abide.')
Not only was Friedrich Shillers's "Ode to Joy" set to
Ninth, but so was
"Joyful, Joyful We Adore Thee,"
a hymn written in 1907 by Princeton professor Henry Van Dyke:
Joyful, joyful, we adore Thee,
God of glory, Lord of love;
Hearts unfold like flowers before Thee,
opening to the sun above.
Melt the clouds of sin and sadness;
drive the dark of doubt away;
Giver of immortal gladness,
fill us with the light of day!..
Thou art giving and forgiving,
ever blessing, ever blessed,
Wellspring of the joy of living,
ocean depth of happy rest!
Thou our Father, Christ our Brother,
all who live in love are Thine;
Teach us how to love each other,
In 1843, another famous Christmas carol was composed.
A parish priest in Roquemaure, France, wanting to celebrate the renovation of the church organ, asked poet Placide Cappeau to write a Christmas poem,
"O Holy Night."
Set to music by Adolphe Adam,
"O Holy Night"
became one of the most beautiful Christmas carols of all time. John Sullivan Dwight published an English singing version in 1855.
"O holy night! The stars are brightly shining,
It is the night of our dear Saviour's birth.
Long lay the world in sin and error pining,
'Til He appear'd and the soul felt its worth.
A thrill of hope the weary world rejoices,
For yonder breaks a new and glorious morn.
Fall on your knees! O hear the angels' voices!
O night divine, O night when Christ was born;
O night divine, O night, O night Divine."
Tchaikovsky's Nutcracker Suite was performed for the first time in Saint Petersburg.
Sixteen years after
death, at the end of 1843, another timeless addition to the holidays occurred when
"A Christmas Carol."
It sold 6,000 copies in London the first day off the press.
In its opening chapters, Scrooge chased away Christmas carolers:
"... at the first sound of --'God bless you, merry gentlemen! May nothing you dismay!'--
Scrooge seized the ruler with such energy of action, that the singer fled in terror, leaving the keyhole to the fog and even more congenial frost."
wrote of Scrooge after his transformation:
"... and it was always said of him, that he knew how to keep Christmas well, if any man alive possessed the knowledge. May that be truly said of us, and all of us!
And so, as Tiny Tim observed, 'God bless Us, Every One!'"
Supreme Court Justice Robert Jackson
McCollum v. Board of Education
"It would not seem practical to teach ... the arts if we are to forbid exposure of youth to any religious influences.
Music without sacred music ... would be ... incomplete
, even from a
point of view."