An Examination of
America's Indian Policies, and the age old Struggle between two competing motivations:
GREED and the GOSPEL.
Throughout history, there have been those motivated by
-took land from Indians;
-sold people into slavery;
-hung signs in their shops: "Help Wanted-
No Irish Immigrants Need Apply";
-British East India Company merchants who
grew opium in India and imported it into China;
-"Since the U.S.-led invasion, Afghan opium production has increased 35-fold ... Overdoses from heroin, an opium derivative, and other opioids kill more than 27,000 people each year."
(Huffington Post, May 5, 2017)
Others selfishly motivated include:
-organizers engaging in "race-baiting"--intentionally
inciting racial tensions for political gain;
create or capitalize on national crisis as an excuse for the government to
usurp rights away from the people and set up a totalitarian dictatorships.
-people who vote for candidates promising entitlements, while advocating immorality and disregard for human life.
Scripture states in I Timothy 6:10 "For the love of money is the root of all evil."
On the other hand, there have been those motivated by the
such as those who:
-dug wells in native villages;
-opened orphanages and medical clinics;
-founded hospitals, inoculated children;
-taught farming techniques;
-provided literacy programs;
-donated money, food & clothes to help the poor;
-took in homeless;
-visited those in prison;
-provided disaster relief & emergency aid;
-fought to abolish slavery, forced marriages & sex-trafficking.
Matthew 25:44-45: "Lord, when saw we thee an hungred, or athirst, or a stranger, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and did not minister unto thee?
Then shall he answer them, saying, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye did it not to one of the least of these, ye did it not to me."
Though Spanish conquistadors were greedily searching for gold and glory, they were followed by Spanish missionaries, like Bartolome' de Las Casas, who was motivated by the
to minister and care for native peoples.
Others motivated by the
Scottish Missionary to the Congo
, who worked to end the Muslim slave trade in Africa;
Scottish Missionary to Nigeria
who promoted women's rights and the ending twin killing;
missionary to Burma, who created a
, who helped famine victims in China;
Missionary to India
, who helped end the practice of "sati"--the burning widows on their husband's ashes;
, who founded orphanages in the slums of England;
, missionary to China who helped end the binding of little girls' feet;
, who was a missionary and physician to the poor in China;
, who worked with orphans in India;
, who was a missionary and teacher among the extreme poor in war torn areas of North China;
, who was a prisoner-of-war turned missionary to war-torn Japan;
who were missionary martyrs to Ecuador's Auca Indians;
Mother Teresa of Calcutta
, who said:
"I see Jesus in every human being.
I say to myself, this is hungry Jesus, I must feed him. This is sick Jesus.
This one has leprosy or gangrene; I must wash him and tend to him. I serve because I love Jesus."
Scripture states in James 1:27 "Pure and undefiled religion in the sight of our God and Father is this: to visit orphans and widows in their distress, and to keep oneself unstained by the world." (NASB)
Those motivated by the GOSPEL
spread uniquely Judeo-Christian ideals like:
-women and children first;
-charity and philanthropy;
-tolerance, equality, honesty, marital fidelity;
The competing motivations of GREED and the GOSPEL can be observed most prominently when more advanced civilizations have clashed with less advanced civilizations.
The Pulitzer Prize winning book
Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies by Jared Diamond
(1997), explained how the first humans were hunter-gatherers, foraging and scavenging for their daily food, pursuing wild animals and collecting wild plants.
As time progressed, some advanced from hunter-gather to domesticating crops and animals, these being the first occupations: "tiller of the ground" and "keeper of flocks."
As methods of food storage developed, these peoples advanced from spending all day hunting and gathering to now developing other occupations, inventions, writing skills, bureaucracies, and eventually armies, with which they displaced less advanced hunter-gathers.
Mesopotamia had the largest share of domesticable crops and animals, along with favorable climate conditions:
-Cereals: Wheat, Barley, Rye, Oats;
-Pulses: Lentil, Pea, Chickpea, Bean;
-Other: Almonds, Olives;
-Flax: a source of linseed oil and fiber for clothes, ropes, rugs, bedding, curtains, sails; and
-Animals: such as donkey, horse, camel, pig, chicken, cattle and oxen.
Mesopotamia's had a head start in advancing civilization, which spread into Europe, the East and North Africa.
Asia had mainly rice. Africa had large animals, but, other than camels and elephants, their wild dispositions rendered them untamable,
i.e., water buffalo, rhino, giraffe, zabra, and gazelle--who could run 60 miles an hour. In Australia, varieties were scarce.
The American continent had only a small selection of domesticable crops, mainly: beans, squash, potatoes, and later maize-corn. These were limited by climate and terrain from spreading north or south across equatorial central America.
America's buffalo, llama, and alpaca, were difficult to domesticate, and dogs could only pull sleds.
The people of the Americas survived because there was a plentiful abundance of food which could be hunted and gathered.
The Europeans who immigrated to the New World were the inheritors of 5,000 years of advancement in civilization, whereas the aboriginal inhabitants of the Americas were still hunting and gathering, living somewhere between the stone age and the bronze age, without even the invention of a usable wheel.
As a result, there was a civilization clash.
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were caught in the clash of technological disparity, as well as in the struggle between
For example, many Indians were persuaded to side with the French against the British during the
French and Indian War
When the French lost, the Indians also lost, and some of their land was confiscated.
Many Indians were persuaded to side with the British during the
as Britain limited colonial westward expansion in 1763.
When the British lost, Indians again lost more land. (Treaty of Greenville, 1795)
Many Indians were persuaded to side with the British during the
War of 1812
When the British lost, Indians lost more land. (Treaty of Fort Jackson, 1814)
Missionaries motivated by the GOSPEL wanted to better the condition of Indians, such as:
-Isaac Jogues, S.J.,
-Fr. Charles Garnier, S.J.,
-Rene Goupil, S.J.,
-Anthony Daniel, S.J.,
-John de Brebeuf, S.J.,
-Pierre Marquette, S.J.,
-Dr. Marcus & Narcissa Whitman,
-Pierre-Jean DeSmet, S.J.,
-Fr. François Blanchet,
-Fr. Modeste Demers,
-Brothers Jason & Daniel Lee,
-Henry & Eliza Spalding,
-Elkanah & Mary Walker,
-David Leslie (founder of Salem, Oregon)
On April 26, 1802,
extended a 1787 act of Congress in which special lands were designated:
"For the sole use of Christian Indians and the Moravian Brethren missionaries for civilizing the Indians and promoting Christianity."
After the Louisiana Purchase, Jefferson asked Congress to ratify a treaty with the
, negotiated by William Henry Harrison-the future 9th President.
, DECEMBER 3, 1803, stated:
"And whereas the greater part of the said tribe have been baptized and received into the Catholic Church, to which they are much attached,
... the United States will give annually, for seven years, one hundred dollars toward the support of a priest of that religion, who will engage to perform for said tribe the duties of his office, and also to instruct as many of their children as possible, in the rudiments of literature,
and the United States will further give the sum of three hundred dollars, to assist the said tribe in the erection of a church."
In 1806 and 1807, two similar treaties were made with the
Wyandotte and Cherokee tribes.
"The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth Extracted Textually from the Gospels in Greek, Latin, French and English"
first in 1804, then again in 1816, with the intention of it being a book of ethics to help Christianize and civilize the Indians, reasoning that if they were given the entire Bible, they may emulate Old Testament stories of warfare.
Jefferson wrote on the cover page:
"The Philosophy of Jesus of Nazareth
--extracted from the account of his life and doctrines as given by Matthew, Mark, Luke & John--being an abridgement of the New Testament
for the use of the Indians unembarrassed with matters of fact or faith beyond the level of their comprehensions."
When gold was discovered in Georgia, greedy settlers rushed in.
A Democrat controlled Congress hurriedly passed a big government solution--the
Indian Removal Act of 1830, signed by Democrat President.
Christian missionary Jeremiah Evarts, motivated by the gospel, led the resistance to the Federal Government's removal plan, with many other missionaries being arrested by the State of Georgia and sentenced to years of hard labor.
Christian missionaries Samuel Worcester and Elizur Butler were arrested and their case defending the Indians went to the U.S. Supreme Court, where Chief Justice John Marshall ruled in favor of the Cherokee in Worcester v. Georgia (1832).
Jackson ignored the decision, being convinced that removal was the only "wise and humane" way to prevent the Indians from "utter annihilation" by greedy, encroaching settlers.
Federal Government then moved thousands Chickasaw, Choctaw, Muscogee-Creek, Seminole, and Cherokee to Oklahoma.
Four thousand died on the Trail of Tears. (Treaty of Fort Armstrong, 1832; Treaty of Echota, 1835)
President Jackson stated in his Third Annual Message, December 6, 1831:
"The removal of the Indians beyond ... jurisdiction of the States does not place them beyond the reach of philanthropic aid and Christian instruction."
President Jackson stated in a Message to Congress, January 20, 1830:
"According to the terms of an agreement between the United States and the
United Society of Christian Indians
the latter have a claim to an annuity of $400, commencing from the 1st of October, 1826, for which an appropriation by law for this amount ... will be proper."
President Jackson commented in his 2nd Annual Message, December 6, 1830:
"The Indians ... gradually, under the protection of the Government and through the influence of good counsels, to cast off their savage habits and become an interesting, civilized, and Christian community."
In the 1850's, the territory of the Five Civilized Tribes in the eastern Oklahoma had gospel-motivated missions, schools and academies:
-Presbyterians' Dwight Mission (Cherokee, 1820, 1828);
-Chuala Female Academy (Choctaw, 1842);
-Tullahassee Manual Labor Boarding School (Cherokee, 1848);
-Congregational-American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions's Wheelock Academy (Choctaw, 1832);
-Methodist Episcopal Church's Quapaw Mission (1843); and
-Bloomfield Academy for Chickasaw Females (1852).
President Lincoln stated in his 3rd Annual Message, December 3, 1863:
"It is hoped that the treaties will result in ... permanent friendly relations with such of these tribes ...
Duty to these wards of the Government demand our anxious and constant attention to their material well-being, to their progress in the arts of civilization,
and, above all, to that moral training which under the blessing of Divine Providence will confer upon them the elevated and sanctifying influences, hopes and consolations, of the Christian faith."
Desperate Indians sometimes
raided along the Missouri, Kansas and Oklahoma borders
, as did pro-slavery Missouri "bushwackers" and anti-slavery Kansas "jayhawkers."
Some Indians sided with the
during the Civil War.
When the South lost, Indians lost more land.
American Minute-Notable Events of American Significance Remembered on the Date They Occurred
Eventually the Democrat policy towards Indians of REMOVAL was replaced with the Republican policy of RESERVATIONS.
To pressure nomadic tribes into settling on reservations, as well as to make way for profitable railroads, millions of buffalo were unfortunately killed off.
Once Indians were on reservations, oil and minerals were found there. Again, greedy politicians soon took land from the Indians, such as in the Teapot Dome Scandal.
In 1869, the Board of Indian Commissioners noted in its annual report:
"The religion of our blessed Savior is ... the most effective agent for the civilization of any people."
Grant's 'Quaker Policy' removed entrepreneurs from being Indian agents and replaced them with missionaries, stating in his First Annual Message, December 6, 1869:
"I have attempted a new policy toward these wards of the nation ...
The Society of Friends is well known as having succeeded in living in peace with the Indians in the early settlement of Pennsylvania ...
They are known for their opposition to all strife, violence, and war, and are generally noted for their strict integrity and fair dealings.
These considerations induced me to give the management of a few reservations of Indians to them ... The result has proven most satisfactory."
President Grant stated in his 2nd Annual Message, December 5, 1870:
"Reform in ... Indian affairs has received the special attention ...
The experiment of making it a missionary work was tried with a few agencies given to the denomination of Friends, and has been found to work most advantageously ...
Indian agencies being civil offices, I determined to give all the agencies to such religious denominations as had heretofore established missionaries among the Indians, and perhaps to some other denominations ... to Christianize and civilize the Indians, and to train him in the arts of peace."
President Grant stated to Congress, January 1, 1871:
"Civilized Indians of the country should be encouraged in establishing for themselves forms of Territorial government compatible with the Constitution ...
This is the first indication of the aborigines desiring to adopt our form of government, and it is highly desirable that they become self-sustaining, self-relying, Christianized, and civilized."
President Grant stated in his 3rd Annual Message, December 4, 1871:
"The policy pursued toward the Indians has resulted favorably ...
Through the exertions of the various societies of Christians ... many tribes of Indians have been induced to settle upon reservations, to cultivate the soil, to perform productive labor of various kinds, and to partially accept civilization ...
I recommend liberal appropriations to carry out the Indian peace policy, not only because it is humane, Christian-like, and economical, but because it is right."
Oklahoma had missions run by
Baptists, Methodists, Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Mennonites, Quakers, Moravians, Nazarene, Catholic and others
Mennonites had a mission among the C
omanches at Post Oak Mission
and at Colony.
Catholics had missions in the
Sacred Heart Abbey,
on the Kiowa-Comanche-Apache Reservation
, and in north central Oklahoma among the
In 1884, one of the first missionaries to the
Yupik Indians in Alaska
John Henry Killbuck, great-grandson of Lenape Chief Gelelemend
, who in 1778 made the first Indian Treaty with the United States and later was converted to Christianity by German Moravian missionaries.
President Cleveland issued the Proclamation respecting Church property in Alaska, November 14, 1896:
"Whereas ... the Russian Empire ceded to the US the Territory of Alaska ... the churches which have been built in the ceded territory ... shall remain the property of such members of the Greek Oriental Church ...
The Cathedral Church of St. Michael ... The Church of the Resurrection ... called the Kalochian Church, situated near the battery number at the palisade separating the city from the Indian village .... Three timber houses ... for lodging of priests. Four lots of ground belonging to the parsonages."
In the 1871 Indian Appropriations Act, Indians officially made legal wards of the state, an idea first introduced in the 1831 case of
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia.
This meant that U.S. government no longer needed to make treaties with tribal leaders, and through Federal government assistance, tended to create a crippling dependency.
Republican President Calvin Coolidge
Indian Citizen Act
granting citizenship to Native Americans born in the United States.
In 1927, President Coolidge was "adopted" into the Sioux tribe at Fort Yates in North Dakota.
As a boy,
had spent several months living on the
Osage Indian Reservation
in Oklahoma Territory.
became a multi-millionaire in the mining industry, he organized the feeding of Europe after World War I.
Republican President Hoover chose as his
Vice-President Charles Curtis,
the nation's first Native American Vice-President, from the Kaw tribe in Kansas.
Hoover reorganized and provided increased funding to the
Bureau of Indian Affairs.
The next President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, had
serve as Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1933-45.
The son of a successful Atlanta businessman,
pressured Congress to pass the
Indian Reorganization Act of 1934.
This preserved Indian identity by restoring native lands, improving reservation medical services, and promoting development of business opportunities for Indians.
The two competing threads of human motivation, Greed and the Gospel, can be traced through history, but they still continued to this day.
Some individuals of American Indian ancestry who have become well-known include:
1879-1935, cowboy, actor, humorist, and newspaper columnist, of Cherokee descent.
1887-1953, Olympic athlete, of Sac and Fox descent.
1918-2009, evangelist who reached millions, broadcast television pioneer, founder of Oral Roberts University, of Cherokee and Choctaw descent.
-Navajo Code Talkers:
Chester Nez, Willson Price, William McCabe, Teddy Draper, Sr., Carl Gorman, Peter MacDonald, Kee Etsicitty, Samuel Tom Holiday, Joe Vandever, Keith Little, John Kinsel, Samuel Tso, together with over 400 Navajo sent vital communications during World War II that the Japanese were unable to decode, allowing for the success of major Marine assaults.
b.1940, actor, martial artist, film producer, of Cherokee descent.
-John Bennett Herrington:
b.1958, first American Indian Astronaut, launched into space with NASA on November 23, 2002, of Chickasaw descent.
Invite Bill Federer to speak: