which means "new town," was
the first and only Russian Republic.
Founded as a trading port near the
in 859 AD, it is considered the first city of the
people, and was their capital until 882 AD when
moved the capital to
During the Middle Ages,
grew so prosperous that was it was
Russia's second main city after Kiev.
controlled an enormous area as large as Sweden.
economy was based on
Baltic sea trade,
being a member of the Hansa Union of rich Baltic ports.
It was situated on one of the main travel routes from Northern Europe to Rome and Constantinople.
During this era in history, Russia was divided into numerous princedoms which fought against each other.
Vladimir the Great of Kiev,
converted to Christianity
in 988 AD.
proceeded to have all Kievan Russians baptized into the Orthodox Christian Church.
When relations between
and his son,
Yaroslav I the Wise,
became strained, the citizens of
and another son,
Svyatopolk the Accursed.
Yaroslav I the Wise
won in 1019, and proceeded to reward the loyal citizens of
with privileges and freedoms, which effectively laid the foundation for
an independent Novgorod Republic.
grew in wealth, built stone walls and erected the
Church of Saint Sofia,
the main cathedral of the Russian North.
By 1136, merchants had accumulated more power than the nobles, resulting in a government by the people.
The city of
was founded in 903 and adhered politically to the
Novgorod and Pskov
were the only major cities in Russia to escape destruction when the
invaded in 1222, led by
the grandson of
to protect it from the Swedish army.
defeated the Swedes near the Neva River, resulting in his title --
The main avenue in St. Petersburg is named for him:
again from the nearby State of Teutonic Knights.
He then recaptured
in a legendary campaign which included the Battle of the Ice on the frozen Lake Peipus, memorialized in Sergei Eisenstein's 1938 movie,
became the most powerful foe,
met in 1252 with the ruler of the Mongol "Golden Horde,"
son of Batu Khan, who had
converted to Christianity.
Other Khan leaders became favorable to Christianity, including
another grandson of Genghis Khan,
whose mother was a famous Christian princess -- Sorghaghtani Beki.
destroyed the Islamic capital of Baghdad (1258), weakened Muslim control of Damascus (1260), and sent a letter in 1262 to
French King Louis IX
-- St. Louis -- proposing they fight together to recapture Jerusalem and drive the Muslims out of Egypt:
"From the head of the Mongol army, anxious to devastate the perfidious nation of the Saracens (Muslims), with the good-will support of the Christian faith ... so that you, who are the rulers of the coasts on the other side of the sea, endeavor to deny a refuge for the Infidels, your enemies and ours, by having your subjects diligently patrol the seas."
Another grandson of Genghis Khan was
Emperor of China, Korea, North India, Persia, Russia and Hungary.
He had requested
bring back 100 teachers of the Holy Christian Faith and a flask of oil from Christ's empty tomb in Jerusalem.
Columbus referred to this in a letter to the King and Queen of Spain in 1492:
"Concerning the lands of India, and a Prince called
How many times he sent to Rome
to seek doctors in our Holy Faith
to instruct him and that never had the Holy Father provided them, and thus so many people were lost through lapsing into idolatries...
And Your Highnesses ... devoted to the Holy Christian Faith ... enemies of the sect of Mahomet ... resolved to send me, Christopher Columbus, to the said regions of India,
to see the said princes
and peoples ... and the manner in which may be undertaken
their conversion to our Holy Faith."
In Russia, Sartaq Khan
vassalage to become
Grand Duke of Vladimir.
died mysteriously in what was suspected to have been poisoning by his uncle
Berke Khan, a convert to Islam.
Berke Khan was determined to be a devout Muslim.
Taking control of the Golden Horde, he spread Islam throughout the Mongolian Empire.
declared war on
for destroying the Islamic capital of Baghdad.
Muslim "Tartar" armies proceeded to capture most of the land of
Rus, with the exception of Novgorod,
as it was surrounded by swamps.
continued to flourish, being ruled by its citizens.
Elections were held in the city square. People gathered and shouted for their candidates. The candidate with the loudest supporters became ruler.
Princes were still present in
but only to be hired military leaders to protect the city.
fate began to change when
Ivan III of Moscow, known as Ivan the Great,
expanded his domain.
Ivan the Great
took away four-fifths of the
Republic of Novgorod
and deported its richest and ancient families.
A century later, in 1570,
Ivan the IV,
Ivan the Terrible,
became paranoid of conspiracies and killed anyone he suspected of being disloyal, even his own son.
was rumored to be seeking an alliance with Poland-Lithuania,
attacked with a vengeance.
first command was to subjugate the church.
He stripped cathedrals and monasteries of their valuables; put priests and deacons in shackles and flogged them til they paid a ransom; and he ordered some 500 clergymen beaten to death.
laid waste to 90 percent of the farmland surrounding Novgorod.
6,000 secret police, called
pillaged, burned, arrested and terrorized with cruel violence.
Men, women and children were:
-roasted over fires;
-tied to sleds and dragged through town;
-trapped under ice in the Volkhov River and if they managed to surface they were shoved back under.
The First Pskov Chronicle
an estimated 60,000 people were senselessly slaughtered by Ivan the Terrible.
Novgorod continued to decline economically until it finally lost its position of being the only Russian port near the Baltic when St. Petersburg was built.
Ivan the Terrible's
intentional use of
to force people into submission was a tactic replicated during the French Revolution's
Reign of Terror
, who headed the "
Committee of Public Safety
," France's version of a Department of Homeland Security, gave a speech to the National Assembly, February 5, 1794, titled "The Terror Justified":
"Lead ... the enemies of the people by terror ... Terror is nothing else than swift, severe, indomitable justice."
attacked Christianity and turned churches into Temples of Reason.
The secular French French government beheaded 40,000 in Paris then slaughtered 300,000 in the Vendée from 1793-1796.
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Terror was a tactic used by the National
Workers Party (Nazi) to bring people into submission during World War II.
Franklin Roosevelt explained, December 15, 1941:
"Government to him is not the servant ... of the people but their absolute master and
of their every act."
Nazis invasion of Russia,
bloodiest theatre in World War II
and largest military confrontation and
deadliest conflict in human history,
with an estimate
30 million deaths.
Battle of Sevastopol, Russia,
1941-42, where over 200,000 were killed, wounded or captured, Franklin Roosevelt stated March 1, 1945:
"I saw Sevastopol and Yalta! And I know that there is not room enough on earth for both German militarism and Christian decency."
Nazi General Hans Frank
plundered Poland, committing mass murder of millions of Poles and Jews in death camps.
After the war,
was arrested, tried and executed.
During his imprisonment, Fr. O'Conner led
to believe in the atonement of Christ for his many sins and he became a Roman Catholic.
At the Nuremberg Trials, August 31, 1945,
was remorseful, stating:
"At the beginning of our way
we did not suspect that our turning away from God could have such disastrous deadly consequences
and that we would necessarily become more and more deeply involved in guilt.
At that time we could not have known that so much loyalty and willingness to sacrifice on the part of the German people could have been so badly directed by us.
by turning away from God, we were overthrown
and had to perish ..."
God pronounced and executed judgment on Hitler and the system which we served with minds far from God
Therefore, may our people, too, be called back from the road on which Hitler -- and we with him -- have led them.
I beg of our people NOT to continue in this direction
, be it even a single step; because
Hitler's road was the way without God, the way of turning from Christ
, and, in the last analysis, the way of political foolishness, the way of disaster, and the way of death ...
... His path became more and more that of
a frightful adventurer without conscience
or honesty, as I know today at the end of this Trial.
We call upon the German people ... to return from this road which, according to
the law and justice of God
, had to lead us and our system into disaster and which will lead everyone into disaster who tries to walk on it ... everywhere in the whole world."
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Another godless government which employed terror was the Union of Soviet
Republics, where millions were killed in purges.
Josef Stalin said:
Crisis alone permitted the authorities to demand -- and obtain -- total submission and all the necessary sacrifices from its citizens.
Socialist and Communist
countries operate effectively as a
was the head of the National
Workers Party; and
was the head of the United Soviet
"The goal of socialism is communism.
Franklin Roosevelt stated February 10, 1940:
"The Soviet Union ... is run by
as absolute as any other dictatorship in the world."
To the annoyance of liberal academia, in reality, the high ideals of a classless society never materialized, as:
-Communist leaders end up ruling as dictators: Mao Zedong, Stalin, Pol Pot, Ho Chi Min, Kim Jong-il, Castro, Ceausescu, Tito, etc.;
-"Communist Party members" effectively became "the new royalty," living in special neighborhoods with special shops, and getting special treatment before the law. They existed to enforce the dictator's will. If they were suspected of opposing the dictator, they disappeared;
-"Citizens" in communist countries are equivalent to subjects, peasants and serfs, with their fate dictated by the dictator and his enforcers.
Naive students are taught that in communist countries, citizens own everything equally - "From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs" (Karl Marx,
Critique of the Gotha Program,
But does this ever happen?
One only needs to ask: "Who gets to live in the nice house and who lives in the dumpy house?" The answer is: "Someone in the government dictates those things." Well, whoever ultimately dictates those things is the dictator!
Controlled media and rigged elections insure the dictator and his "royalty" enforcer-class stay in power.
Stalin used terror to control citizens, notoriously through "fear and food":
people were kept in constant fear
that government agencies would falsely accuse them and cart them away in the night; and
-people were kept in a continual food shortage,
so they could not have the resources to rebel.
engineered a famine in his war against the kulaks that killed millions.
Richard Pipes discussed in his book
(Random House, 2001), the terror tactics used by Stalin:
"To break the resistance of the peasants in the Ukraine, the North Caucasus, and the Kazakhstan,
inflicted on these areas in 1932-33 an artificial famine, shipping out all the food from entire districts and deploying the army to prevent the starving peasants from migrating in search of nourishment.
It is estimated that between 6 and 7 million people perished in this man-made catastrophe."
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Richard Pipes continued in his book,
regime needed another crisis ...
, the leader of Communist Cuba, would explain ...
'The revolution needs the enemy ... The revolution needs for its development its antithesis'
... And if enemies were lacking, they had to be fabricated ..."
"In 1934, a prominent Bolshevik,
, the party boss of Lenningrad, was assassinated under mysterious conditions ... evidence points to
was gaining too much popularity in party ranks for Stalin's comfort ...
His assassination brought
two advantages: it rid him of a potential rival and provided a rationale for instigating a vast campaign against alleged anti-Soviet conspirators ...
Purges of the 1930's were a terror campaign that in indiscriminate ferocity and number of victims had no parallel in world history ... Authorities ... beat them until they confess to their crimes they have not committed."
In February 1945,
was arrested in the Soviet Union for writing politically incorrect comments against
was imprisoned for eight years, as he described in his autobiographical lecture, printed in the Nobel Foundation's publication,
Les Prix Nobel
"I was arrested on the grounds of what the censorship had found in my correspondence with a school friend, mainly because of certain disrespectful remarks about Stalin, although we referred to him in disguised terms.
A further basis for the 'charge' were drafts of stories and reflections which had been found in my map case."
was Awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1970, but the Communist government did not allow him to leave the country to accept it.
The Gulag Archipelago
in 1973. It was translated into 35 languages and sold over 30 million copies. In response to international pressure, the Soviet Union expelled him on FEBRUARY 13, 1974.
The following year in Washington, D.C.,
"I ... call upon
to be more careful ... because
they are trying to weaken you ... to disarm your strong and magnificent country
in the face of this
fearful threat -- one that has never been seen before in the history of the world."
explained how Russia became socialist:
"Over a half century ago, while I was still a child, I recall hearing a number of old people offer the following explanation for the great disasters that had befallen Russia:
'Men have forgotten God; that's why all this has happened ...'
... Since then I have spent well-nigh 50 years working on the history of our revolution; in the process I have read hundreds of books, collected hundreds of personal testimonies ...
But if I were asked today to formulate as concisely as possible the main cause of
the ruinous revolution that swallowed up some 60 million of our people
, I could not put it more accurately than to repeat:
'Men have forgotten God; that's why all this has happened.'"
Another Russian author,
in his book,
The Brothers Karamazov
, had the character Ivan Karamazov contend that
if there is no God, "everything is permitted."
Patrick Henry stated:
"It is when a people forget God that tyrants forge their chains."