Volume 148 (2) | February 2018
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The Journal of Nutrition Media Alerts
The following articles have been published in the February 2018 issue of  The Journal of Nutrition, a publication of the American Society for Nutrition. Summaries of the selected articles appear below; the full text of each article is available by clicking on the links listed. Manuscripts published in  The Journal of Nutrition are embargoed until the article appears online either as in press ( Articles in Press) or as a final version. The embargoes for the following articles have expired ( Editor's Choice in bold):

  • Study: eating eggs for breakfast may help stimulate fat breakdown
  • Blueberries decrease inflammation and regulate blood sugar levels in rats eating a high-fat diet; possible involvement with gut microbes
  • Reduced insulin response in ketosis-prone diabetic ketoacidosis subjects may result from altered arginine metabolism and availability
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Study: eating eggs for breakfast may help stimulate fat breakdown
With the majority of overweight or obese, most could benefit from losing a little body fat. But for most of us, making this happen is much easier said than done. Do we eat less, exercise more, or both? Alternatively, can we simply shift our dietary patterns to somehow trigger fat loss without having to change much else? This study suggests that consuming a higher-fat, lower-carbohydrate breakfast might help us break down body fat throughout the day.

References: Bush NC, Resuehr HES, Goree LL, Locher JL, Bray MS, Soleymani T, Gower BA. A High-Fat Compared with a High-Carbohydrate Breakfast Enhances 24-Hour Fat Oxidation in Older Adults. Journal of Nutrition 2018 148:220-26. Fernandez ML. Commentary: A High-Fat Breakfast Enhances 24-Hour Oxidation in Older Adults. Journal of Nutrition 2018 148:172-73.
For More Information: To contact the corresponding author, Dr. Nikki Bush, please send an e-mail to nikcha@uab.edu. To contact the commentary author, Dr. Maria Luz Fernandez, send an email to maria-luz.fernandez@uconn.edu.

Blueberries decrease inflammation and regulate blood sugar levels in rats eating a high-fat diet; possible involvement with gut microbes
Although we have long known that our gastrointestinal tracts are teeming with literally trillions of microbes, only recently have scientists begun to scratch the surface in terms of learning what these bacteria do to earn their keep. In this paper, researchers report their findings supporting the likelihood that variation in our resident microbial communities can impact incredibly important health metrics such as chronic inflammatory status and even blood sugar regulation. Researchers stimulated these microbial shifts via feeding laboratory rats powdered blueberries. Interestingly, blueberry supplementation reversed many of the negative effects of feeding the animals a high-fat diet.

Reference: Lee S, Keirsey KI, Kirkland R, Grunewald ZI, Fischer JG, de la Serre CB. Blueberry Supplementation Influences the Gut Microbiota, Inflammation, and Insulin Resistance in High-Fat-Diet–Fed Rats. Journal of Nutrition 2018 148:209-19.
For More Information: To contact the corresponding author, Dr. Claire de La Serre, please send an e-mail to cdlserre@uga.edu.

Read full summaries here .
JN  Editor's Choice

Reduced insulin response in ketosis-prone diabetic ketoacidosis subjects may result from altered arginine metabolism and availability
Among individuals struggling with diabetes, there is a subset of individuals that have “A-ß+ ketosis-prone diabetic ketoacidosis (KDP)”. Despite the absence of ß cell autoimmunity, they experience severe ß cell dysfunction, which can resolve allowing them periods of near-normoglycemic and insulin-independent remission. The etiology of this process is currently unknown. Some evidence exists suggesting they have defects in the metabolism of arginine and the ketogenic amino acid leucine as well as in the oxidation of ketones. The existing evidence also indicates these individuals may have a shortage of arginine, and that this deficiency may contribute to ß-cell dysfunction. One potential unexplored mechanism is the impact of intestinal microbiota on arginase activity, which could alter arginine availability. Work by Mulukutla and colleagues that address these voids in our understanding of ß-cell function is reported in this paper.

References: Mulukutla SN, Hsu JW, Gaba R, Bohren KM, Guthikonda A, Iyer D, Ajami NJ, Petrosino FJ, Hampe CS, Ram N, Jahoor F, Balasubramanyam A.  Arginine Metabolism Is Altered in Adults with A-β + Ketosis-Prone DiabetesJournal of Nutrition 2018 148:185-93. Boyne, MS.  Commentary: Arginine Metabolism and A−β + Ketosis-Prone DiabetesJournal of Nutrition 2018 148:170-71.
For More Information: To contact the corresponding author, Ashok Balasubramanyam, please send an email to ashokb@bcm.edu. To contact the corresponding author of commentary, Michael S. Boyne, please send an email to Michael.boyne@uwimonia.edu.jm.
To arrange an interview with an ASN spokesperson, email media@nutrition.org

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