Volume 148 (5) | May 2018
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The Journal of Nutrition Media Alerts
The following articles have been published in the May 2018 issue of  The Journal of Nutrition, a publication of the American Society for Nutrition. Summaries of the selected articles appear below; the full text of each article is available by clicking on the links listed. Manuscripts published in  The Journal of Nutrition are embargoed until the article appears online either as in press ( Articles in Press) or as a final version. The embargoes for the following articles have expired ( Editor's Choice in bold):
  • Might childhood malnutrition predispose teenage boys to behavioral problems?
  • Can altering the caloric density of foods help with appetite control?
  • New study finds dietary patterns might be established by 1 or 2 years of age
  • Inclusion of red raspberry powder reduces not only inflammatory processes but also risk factors for colon cancer in a mouse model of ulcerative colitis
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Might childhood malnutrition predispose teenage boys to behavioral problems?
Mental illness among children and adolescents continues to be a serious public health problem worldwide. In fact, experts estimate that mental health problems affect between 10 and 20% of children and adolescents worldwide. In the United States, about 7% of children and teens are thought to suffer from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 3% from anxiety, and 2% from depression. These conditions and others not only affect physical and mental health during the formative years, but also extend into adulthood if not adequately treated. Malnutrition during infancy and childhood is known to play an important role in cognitive and behavioral development, and thus likely also impacts risk for mental illness. For example, iron deficiency in infancy can negatively influence a child’s ability to learn, cause behavior problems and anxiety in adolescence, and is associated with higher risk of psychiatric disorders in adulthood. In a study published in the May 2018 issue of The Journal of Nutrition, Dr. Eduardo Villamor (University of Michigan) and colleagues report their findings that inadequate iron and vitamin B12 status during the pre-teen years may also preferentially increase risk of behavioral problems in adolescent boys but not girls.

Reference: Robinson SL, Marín C, Oliveros H, Mora-Plazas Mercedes, Richards BJ, Lozoff B, Villamor E. Iron deficiency, anemia, and low vitamin B-12 serostatus in middle childhood are associated with behavior problems in adolescent boys: results from the Bogotá school children cohort .   J Nutr 2018 148(5):760-70.
For More Information To contact the corresponding authors, Dr. Eduardo Villamor, please send an e-mail to villamor@umich.edu .

Can altering the caloric density of foods help with appetite control?  
On a gram-for-gram basis, the number of calories you get from foods can vary substantially depending on their water and fat contents. Nutrition researchers refer to this concept as the 'energy density' of a food, defined as the amount of energy (or calories) per gram of food. Foods with lower energy densities provide fewer calories per gram of food than those with higher energy densities. Low-energy-density foods include soups and stews which have high water contents, pasta and rice that absorb water during cooking and contain little in the way of oils, and fruits and vegetables that are naturally high in water and low in fats. High fiber foods, such as whole grains and legumes, also tend to have low energy densities. Some research in non-dieting participants has provided evidence that consuming low-energy-dense foods and beverages before a meal can decrease the number of calories consumed from the meal. None-the-less, whether low-energy-dense foods increase fullness and decrease food intake in individuals engaged in weight loss and whether following a program that involves eating low-energy-dense foods results in greater weight loss compared to a program focusing simply on calorie restriction are not known. The May 2018 issue of The Journal of Nutrition, however, includes results from an encouraging study designed to help answer these questions.

Reference: Buckland NJ, Camidge D, Croden F, Lavin JH, Stubbs RJ, Hetherington MM, Blundell JE, Finlayson G. A Low Energy–Dense Diet in the Context of a Weight-Management Program Affects Appetite Control in Overweight and Obese Women.   J Nutr 2018 148(5):798-806.
For More Information: To contact the corresponding author, Dr. Nicola Buckland, please send an e-mail to n.buckland@sheffield.ac.uk.

New study finds dietary patterns might be established by 1 or 2 years of age
Experts agree that dietary patterns can greatly influence health throughout the entire lifespan. For instance, increased consumption of fruits, vegetables, and dairy foods is associated with lower risks for a variety of conditions such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and certain forms of cancer. Nonetheless, it is difficult for many adults to shift what they eat due to a litany of factors such as food preferences and long-ingrained habit. This is one of the reasons it is critically important to establish healthy eating patterns early in life. But what is the critical window of opportunity in terms of when these preferences are established? Some studies have suggested that food patterns are already established in childhood. But in a paper published in the May issue of The Journal of Nutrition, Dr. Joaquin Escribano (University of Rovira and Virgil, Spain) and colleagues provide proof that dietary habits may be formed as early as 1 year of age.

Reference: Luque V, Escribano J, Closa-Monasterolo R, Zaragoza-Jordana M, Ferré N, Grote V, Koletzko B, Totzauer M, Verduci E, ReDionigi A, Gruszfeld D, Socha P, Rousseaux D, Moretti M, Oddy W, Ambrosini GL. Unhealthy dietary patterns established in infancy track to mid-childhood: the EU Childhood Obesity Project.   J Nutr 2018 148(5):752-59.
For More Information: To contact the corresponding author, Dr. Joaquin Escribano, please send an e-mail to Joaquin.escribano@urv.cat.


Read full summaries here .
JN  Editor's Choice Article

Inclusion of red raspberry powder reduces not only inflammatory processes but also risk factors for colon cancer in a mouse model of ulcerative colitis
The risks for developing colon cancer are reduced in those populations where consumption of fruit, vegetable and dietary fiber is elevated. Part of the protection from this type of dietary pattern is thought to derive from the biologically active compounds present in plant-based foods. The net result of their biological effects include reductions in inflammatory processes that contribute to or otherwise promote chronic, or recurrent bouts of inflammatory bowel diseases, such as ulcerative colitis. Because ulcerative colitis is a known promoter of colon carcinogenesis, identifying foods and the compounds in them that are capable of reducing inflammation will be critical as we hope to suggest dietary patterns that are capable of suppressing not only ulcerative colitis, but also colon cancer. This paper, published by Bibi and colleagues in the May 2018 issue of The Journal of Nutrition explores the hypothesis that the mixture of compounds found in red raspberries would reduce the disease processes involved in ulcerative colitis that contribute to elevated risk of colorectal cancer.

For More Information: To contact the corresponding author, Dr. Mei-Jun Zhu, please send an email to meijun.zhu@wsu.edu.
To arrange an interview with an ASN spokesperson, email media@nutrition.org

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