e intentionally fired into the air, but his political rival,
Vice-President Aaron Burr
, took deadly aim and fatally shot
in a duel JULY 11, 1804.
was born in the British West Indies on the
Island of Nevis,
either in the year 1755 or 1757, and grew up on the
Island of St. Croix.
Just a few years earlier, in 1751, 19-year-old
had accompanied his older half-brother Lawrence on a trip to the nearby
Island of Barbados.
parents were not legally married, he was not permitted to attend the Anglican academy, resulting in him being tutored at a private school by a Jewish headmistress.
worked for merchants till, at the age of 17, he sailed to Massachusetts in 1772 to attend Elizabethtown Academy.
He was studying at
in New York when the Revolutionary War started.
fought in the Battle of White Plains and the Battle of Trenton.
He served four years as
General George Washington
Promoted to Lieutenant Colonel,
led a bayonet attack at night capturing
Redoubt No. 10
which helped the Continental Army win the
Battle of Yorktown,
October 19, 1781.
During the Revolution,
wrote "The Farmer Refuted," February 23, 1775, stating:
"The Supreme Being gave existence to man, together with the means of preserving and beautifying that existence ...
and invested him with an inviolable right to personal liberty and personal safety ..."
"The sacred rights of mankind are not to be rummaged for among old parchments or musty records.
They are written, as with a sunbeam, in the whole volume of human nature, by the Hand of the Divinity itself, and can never be erased or obscured by mortal power ..."
Miracles in American History - 32 Amazing Stories of Answered Prayer
"Good and wise men, in all ages ... have supposed that the Deity, from the relations we stand in to Himself, and to each other, has constituted an eternal and immutable law, which is indispensably obligatory upon all mankind ...
This is what is called the law of nature ... dictated by God himself."
Bank of North America,
the first private commercial bank in the United States, to bring stability to the nation's finances after the fiat Continental currency became worthless, as the saying went, "not worth a continental."
Alexander Hamilton helped write the U.S. Constitution.
He stated at the Constitutional Convention, June 22, 1787:
"Take mankind as they are, and what are they governed by? Their passions.
There may be in every government a few choice spirits, who may act from more worthy motives.
One great error is that we suppose mankind is more honest that they are."
After the Constitution was written,
helped convinced the States to ratify it by
writing The Federalist Papers
Of the 85 Federalist Papers,
Hamilton wrote 51
wrote of the Constitution in his
Letters of Caesar,
"Whether the New Constitution, if adopted, will prove adequate to such desirable ends, time, the mother of events, will show.
For my own part, I sincerely esteem it a system, which, without
the finger of God
, never could have been suggested and agreed upon by such a diversity of interests."
(Ford, Paul L.,
Essays on the Constitution of the United States, Historical Printing Club, Brooklyn, 1892, pg 245).
first Secretary of the U.S. Treasury
-- his statue is at the south entrance of the Treasury building in Washington, DC.
The First Bank of the United States
to assume the states' Revolutionary War debt, to establish a mint and to impose a federal excise tax.
pushed Congress to have ships, called
to collect revenue, confiscate contraband, and guard the coasts from piracy, thus
beginning of the U.S. Coast Guard
Opposed to slavery,
New York Manumission Society
helped pass legislation in 1799 to end New York's involvement in the slave trade
In 1799, after the death of George Washington,
Senior Officer of the United States Army
during a threatened war with France.
Hamilton condemned the French Revolution's attempt to overthrow Christianity
"(depriving) mankind of its best consolations and most animating hopes, and to make a gloomy desert of the universe ...
The praise of a civilized world is justly due to Christianity
; -- war, by the influence of the humane principles of that religion, has been stripped of half its horrors.
The French renounce Christianity
, and they relapse into barbarism;-war resumes the same hideous and savage form which it wore in the ages of Gothic and Roman violence."
"Facts, numerous and unequivocal, demonstrate that the present era is among the most extraordinary which have occurred in the history of human affairs.
Opinions, for a long time, have been gradually gaining ground, which threaten the foundations of religion, morality, and society.
An attack was first made upon the Christian revelation, for which natural religion was offered as the substitute.
The Gospel was to be discarded as a gross imposture, but the being and attributes of god, the obligations of piety, even the doctrine of a future state of rewards and punishments, were to be retained and cherished."
(Lodge, Henry Cabot,
The Works of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 8, G.P. Putnam's Sons, New York, 1904, pg 425-426.)
began organizing T
he Christian Constitutional Society
, writing to James Bayard, April 16, 1802:
"Let an association be formed to be denominated 'The Christian Constitutional Society,' its object to be first: The support of Christian religion; second: The support of the United States."
, back in 1775, had quoted Sir William Blackstone that the Law of Nature was "dictated by God himself," and in 1798, he had written:
"Americans rouse -- be unanimous, be virtuous, be firm, exert your courage, trust in Heaven, and nobly defy the enemies both of God and man!"
(Hamilton, John C.,
The Works of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 7, John F. Trow, New York, 1851, pg 676.)
, the daughter of Revolutionary War
General Philip Schuyler
who had served in the Continental Congress.
New York City's first private orphanage.
General Philip Schuyler
first U.S. Senator from New York,
but was defeated for reelection by
had fought in the Revolution, was elected to the New York State Assembly, 1784-1785, and was appointed New York State Attorney General.
was elected to the U.S. Senate, defeating General Philip Schuyler
lost in his bid to become the President of the United States, running against both John Adams and Thomas Jefferson.
Originally, in Presidential elections, the candidate receiving the most electoral votes was elected President, and the candidate receiving the second most votes was elected Vice-President.
Despite George Washington's warning over the divisive "danger of Parties,"
organized the first political party, the
organizing the second political party of anti-Federalists, eventually called
wanted a stronger centralized government to insure a stable currency and provide better national defense; and the
wanted a weaker centralized government to prevent a repeat of the abuse of power experienced under King George III.
In a shift of allegiances during the Presidential election of 1800,
was instrumental in helping
be elected U.S. President over
, who then became Vice-President.
In the 1804 election,
threatened to withdraw from the Federalist Party if it chose
Vice-President Aaron Burr
as its Presidential Candidate.
was responsible for turning the social club
, named for the Lanape Indian Chief Tamanend, into the infamous New York political machine.
New York badly needed a clean water supply to prevent malaria outbreaks.
Under the pretense of establishing a water company,
solicited investors but secretly changed the company's charter to found the
Bank of the Manhattan Company
The Bank was later absorbed into the
JP Morgan Chase Manhattan Bank
Bank of New York
later ran for governor of New York,
Alexander Hamilton's influence again led to his defeat.
a political opportunist, declaring: "I feel it is a religious duty to oppose his career."
took offense and challenged
to a duel.
Considered the most famous duel in American history, they met on the morning of July 11, 1804, at the dueling grounds near Weehawken, New Jersey.
shot and mortally wounding
in the stomach.
requested Episcopal minister Dr. John Mason give him the Lord's Supper, but Dr. Mason refused as his church principle was to "never to administer the Lord's Supper privately to any person under any circumstances."
Dr. Mason did, though, affirm that the Lord's Supper was not a requirement for salvation, to which Hamilton replied his request was a testimony of his faith:
"I have a tender reliance on the mercy of the Almighty, through the merits of the Lord Jesus Christ."
The duel ended
's life and ended
Ironically, at that same place three years earlier, Alexander Hamilton's son
was killed in a duel with George Eacker, November 22, 1801.
was defending his father's honor after Eacker, a supporter of Jefferson, had denigrated him in a speech at Columbia University.
The two had run into each other outside a play at New York's Park Theater, resulting in a hostile, screaming confrontation, and the challenge of a duel.
was immediately ostracized from American politics.
A few years later,
contrived of a plan to take control over part of the Louisiana Territory and Mexico.
When his plan came to light,
was indicted on charges of conspiracy and treason in 1807.
fled the United States in 1808 and lived in Europe for several years.
was mentioned in a negative light in the popular 1863 novel,
The Man Without a Country
, written by
Edward Everett Hale.
In the novel, the fictitious unpatriotic protagonist, Philip Nolan, had developed a friendship with the traitorous
had previously warned:
"Liberty is a gift of the beneficent Creator to the whole human race ...
Civil liberty ... cannot be wrested from any people, without the most manifest violation of justice."
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