men, women and children were
Fort Mims, Alabama
, just north of Mobile, on August 30, 1813, by the
Red Stick Creek Indians.
The Alabama historical marker reads:
"FORT MIMS - Here in the Creek Indian War 1813-14 took place the most brutal massacre in American history. Indians took fort with heavy loss, then killed all but about 36 of some 550 in the fort. Creeks had been armed by British at Pensacola in this phase of War of 1812."
incited to riot and attack
circulating that the
British were paying cash for American scalps.
The killing of the inhabitants of Fort Mims demanded a response.
Colonel Andrew Jackson
was sent to fight the
Red Stick Creek Indians
and he defeated them in the
Battle of Horseshoe Bend
, March 27, 1814.
, the future leader of Texas, fought as one of Jackson's lieutenants. He was shot in the thigh with an arrow, yet kept fighting.
defeated Creeks ceded nearly half of Alabama
to the U.S. Government.
Promoted to General,
was sent 150 miles further west
to defend New Orleans from the British.
War of 1812 was officially over two weeks earlier
with the signing of the
Treaty of Ghent
, December 24, 1814,
news of it had not yet reached New Orleans.
On January 8, 1815, in
the last battle of the War of 1812
10,000 battle-hardened British soldiers
under cover of dark, heavy fog.
They were intending to execute
a surprise attack
on General Andrew Jackson's
Tennessee and Kentucky sharpshooters
, aided by
French pirate Jean Lafitte
and his men.
As the British neared,
the fog suddenly lifted
and the British were exposed in the open field.
Americans opened fire.
the British commanding officers were shot
British forces fell into confusion.
In the next thirty minutes,
2,042 British were killed or wounded.
Only 13 Americans were killed
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the greatest American land victory of the war
, General Andrew Jackson wrote to Robert Hays, January 26, 1815, regarding the
Battle of New Orleans:
"It appears that
the unerring hand of Providence shielded my men
from the shower of balls, bombs, and rockets, when every ball and bomb from our guns carried with them a mission of death."
told his aide-de-camp Major Davezac of his confidence before the Battle:
I was sure of success, for I knew that God
would not give me previsions of disaster,
but signs of victory. He said this ditch can never be passed. It cannot be done.
wrote to Secretary of War James Monroe, February 17, 1815:
Heaven, to be sure, has interposed most wonderfully in our behalf
, and I am filled with gratitude, when I look back to what we have escaped."
Treaty of Ghent
ratified by the U.S. Senate on February 16, 1815.
MIRACLES IN AMERICAN HISTORY-32 Amazing Stories of Answered Prayer
British forces considered capturing Mobile, Alabama,
but on February 26, 1815, Napoleon escaped.
For nearly a year, Napoleon had been banished to the Mediterranean Island of Elba, situated less than 10 miles from Italy.
Now back in Europe, Napoleon quickly reassembled his vast French army of 300,000 soldiers.
British troops were urgently recalled to Europe to join the
68,000 strong force under Britain's Duke of Wellington
with the 50,000 troops under Prussian commander Gebhard von Blücher.
next one hundred days,
events in Europe cascaded toward the massive
Battle of Waterloo
, where Napoleon was defeated.
Napoleon was then banished to the isolated Island of St. Helena in the South Atlantic -- over a thousand miles from the nearest land.
American were thankful they maintained independence during this time of global crisis.
President James Madison
proclaimed, March 4, 1815:
"A day may be recommended to be
observed by the people of the United States
a Day of Thanksgiving and of Devout Acknowledgments to Almighty God
for His great goodness manifested in restoring to them the blessing of peace.
No people ought to feel greater obligations to celebrate the goodness of the Great Disposer of Events and of the Destiny of Nations than the people of the United States.
His kind providence
originally conducted them to one of the best portions of the dwelling place allotted for the great family of the human race.
He protected and cherished them
under all the difficulties and trials to which they were exposed in their early days.
Under His fostering care
their habits, their sentiments, and their pursuits prepared them for a transition in due time to a state of independence and self-government.
In the arduous struggle by which it was attained they were distinguished by multiplied token
His benign interposition
"During the interval which succeeded
He reared them into the strength
and endowed them with the resources which have enabled them
to assert their national rights
and to enhance their national character
in another arduous conflict, which is now so happily terminated by a peace and reconciliation with those who have been our enemies.
And to the same
Divine Author of Every Good and Perfect Gift
we are indebted for all those privileges and advantages, religious as well as civil, which are so richly enjoyed in this favored land ..."
"It is for blessings such as these, and more especially for the restoration of the blessing of peace, that I now recommend that the second Thursday in April next
be set apart as a day on which the people
of every religious denomination
may in their solemn assemblies
unite their hearts and their voices
a freewill offering to their Heavenly Benefactor
of their homage of thanksgiving and of their songs of praise.
Given at the city of Washington on the fourth of March, in
the year of our Lord
one thousand eight hundred and fifteen, and
of the independence of the United States
the thirty-ninth. James Madison."
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