August 30, 2017
  
Study examines the impact of leaf wax on plant survival in harsh climates
 
By Paul Schattenberg
Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service
 
Looking at leaves to peer into the future might seem the stuff of superstition, but is actually the essence of research conducted by scientists from Texas A&M AgriLife and the University of Southern California.
 
"Our study was based on observations that the more successful crops in areas typically affected by drought are usually protected by a thicker layer of leaf wax than other plants," said Dr. Xuejun Dong, Texas A&M AgriLife Research crop physiologist and a corresponding author for the study, Uvalde. "We're hoping this research will help wheat breeders add to the arsenal of traits they select for drought-tolerant wheat."
 
Dong had previously made observations on the leaf surface features of dozens of desert plants in Central Asia, including observations of leaf cuticle and wax, but had not yet done in-depth research on the leaf wax of annual field crops such as wheat.
 
In this research, Dong was joined by other Texas A&M scientists, including Dr. Amir Ibrahim, AgriLife Research, and Dr. Clark Neely, Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service, both in College Station; Dr. Daniel Leskovar and study first-author Xiuwei Liu, both with AgriLife Research in Uvalde; and Dr. Qingwu Xue and Thomas Marek, both with AgriLife Research in Amarillo.
 
The other corresponding author for the study was Dr. Sarah Feakins, associate professor of earth sciences at the University of Southern California's Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences. Funding was provided by AgriLife Research and the Texas Wheat Producers Board.
 
"Leaf wax creates a boundary between the plant leaf and the atmosphere and reflects the plant's adaptation and response to environmental stresses, including drought," Dong said. "Ideally, water loss through a plant's cuticle layers should be minimized for plants to conserve water in terrestrial environments.
 
"We were interested in learning about leaf wax and its value in influencing the water permeability of plant epidermal cells. We also wanted to learn about how wax might be related to crop tolerance to heat."
 
The researchers examined plant wax traits and responses to the environment in irrigated winter wheat, a common agricultural monocot. They quantified the concentration of one main component of leaf wax alkanes, as well as leaf water-use efficiency through carbon isotopic composition.
 
An abstract of the study, published in the Organic Geochemistry journal, can be found at http://bit.ly/2w1ZaLn.
 
"The goal was to identify those traits that would better allow wheat to grow in areas with limited water resources and harsh weather conditions and still produce adequate yields," Dong said. "Being able to identify and breed more drought-tolerant crops will be even more important in the future as we try to feed a growing world population on less available agricultural land and fewer water resources."
 
The researchers conducted field-growth studies of winter wheat - one in Uvalde in the Texas Winter Garden area and another in Amarillo in the Texas High Plains. They sampled leaves from 10 different varieties grown under full irrigation as well as deficit irrigation of 13 and 25 percent.
 
"We found there were about 50 percent higher concentrations of leaf wax in winter wheat under 25 percent deficit irrigation at the Amarillo site, leading us to suggest wheat breeders may want to select to ensure these higher concentrations along with other traits associated with heat and drought tolerance," Ibrahim said.
 
Ibrahim added that breeders cannot rely on single traits, but must rely on multiple traits in addition to yield performance under drought stress conditions.
 
Ibrahim said Texas A&M AgriLife has a small grains improvement team, with centers of excellence in both the main campus in College Station and in Amarillo. Team members have been investigating traits associated with biotic and abiotic stresses tolerance and improved selection and breeding methods for wheat and other small grain crops in Texas for many years.
 
"This work builds on work done previously by AgriLife personnel, including Dr. Dirk Hays and myself on leaf wax and by Drs. Jackie Rudd, Qingwu Xue, Shuyu Liu and myself on multiple drought tolerance traits in the Texas High Plains, Rolling Plains and in South and Central Texas," he said.
 
Dong said demonstrating there was a significantly larger concentration of wax in the leaves of winter wheat grown in the High Plains area helped validate the premise that plants which survive drought conditions in the natural ecosystem are likely to have these higher concentrations.
 
He said bulk leaf and leaf wax analyses through carbon isotopes in the plant leaves and waxes yielded broadly similar insights for plant water use efficiency.
 
"Carbon isotopic composition was sensitive to location and deficit irrigation," Dong said.
 
He said having the wax composition information from the study will also allow investigation into whether some component is related to resistance to leaf rust, a fungal leaf disease that is a major factor affecting wheat yield.
 
"The study information will also facilitate understanding of the ecophysiology of leaf wax in relation to drought and heat stress tolerance and production in other crops," he noted.
 
Dong said there are 180 plots of corn and sorghum being grown under the same two irrigation regimens in Uvalde as part of a collaboration with AgriLife Research crop breeders.
 
"Of the 15 hybrids of corn and sorghum each, there are five or six that are either drought tolerant or drought susceptible," he said, "It would be interesting to determine the leaf wax thickness and composition of some of these plants."
 
He also noted Liu is currently at USC to do additional analysis on samples collected from the second year of winter wheat trials in the Winter Garden and High Plains regions.
 
Dong said another aspect of research he is excited about is the collaboration between plant scientists and geoscientists in studying leaf wax structural constituents that affect both agronomic stress tolerance and future carbon sequestration.
 
"Leaf alkanes belong to a group of long-lived substances that, once deposited, can be preserved over a geological time scale," he explained. "What we do today and in future crop breeding may have a significant impact for carbon balance on a global scale, especially considering the intensified agricultural activities taking place on the world's arable land."
2017 Mite-A-Thon to test honey bee hives
 
Pollinator Partnership
 
Pollinator Partnership , the world's largest non-profit organization dedicated to the health of all pollinators, announced that an opportunity to gather data on Varroa mite infestations will take place from September 9 to 16, 2017. The first annual Mite-A-Thon will test honey bee hives for levels of Varroa mites all across North America just before overwintering begins and commercial, sideliner, and hobbyist beekeepers are all encouraged to participate in order to create a rich distribution of sampling sites in Canada, the United States, and Mexico. A common measurement protocol will be used, and data will be uploaded to MiteCheck.
 
The Varroa mite was introduced into North America 30 years ago from Asia, and is one of the leading stressors to the health of honey bees in North America. The presence of mites in hives is a leading indicator of the health of the hive and the percentage of bees with mites provides a way to measure the cumulative impact of other stressors such as pesticides, poor nutrition, and disease. There are significant data showing that low rates of Varroa mite infestation make overwintering success more probable.
 
James Sherman of Pollinator Partnership said that the Mite-A-Thon will "raise awareness about the level of Varroa mites across the hives of North America and will also teach consistent and effective methods to measure mite load." Sherman added that "mite management strategies will be made available for those who seek them based on information and outreach materials developed by the partners listed below. We hope to have over 10,000 samplings."
 
Val Dolcini , President and CEO of Pollinator Partnership encouraged all beekeepers to participate. "We welcome backyard beekeepers and citizen scientists, testing their hives and reporting the data they find during this week in September. We need bee clubs and associations to help lead this effort." More information about the Mite-A-Thon can be found at www.pollinator.org/miteathon .
 
Participants will test the level of mites present in their hives using a standardized protocol utilizing two common methods of assessment (powdered sugar roll or alcohol wash) and then upload their data (at www.mitecheck.com ), including location, total number of hives, number of hives tested, local habitat, and the number of Varroa mites counted from each hive.
 
The Mite-A-Thon is supported by the North American Pollinator Protection Campaign (NAPPC) and Pollinator Partnership. NAPPC has more than 160 partner entities from government, industry, academia, and NGO's who work collaboratively across North America to support pollinators. For nearly two decades, NAPPC partners have created real and lasting programs that support best management practices and real change for pollinators in all landscapes. The NAPPC website is www.nappc.org . NAPPC's administration is provided by Pollinator Partnership ( www.pollinator.org ).
Funds available for forest thinning through Southern Pine Beetle Prevention Program
 
Texas A&M Forest Service
 
Texas A&M Forest Service is accepting applications for the 2017 Southern Pine Beetle Prevention Program. Through this cost-share program eligible forest landowners can receive financial and technical assistance related to reducing the threat of future SPB infestations and outbreaks.
 
Funds provided by USDA Forest Service-Region 8 and Forest Health Protection can assist landowners with conducting first thin operations in overly dense, pulpwood size pine standsin 23 East Texas counties.
 
"First thin refers to the first time we enter a planted stand to mechanically remove less desirable trees, leaving the better quality trees. Typically in planted pine stands we do this somewhere between age 10 and 14 depending on tree growth," said Texas A&M Forest Service Program Leader Shane Harrington.
 
This first removal results in pulpwood size trees, small diameter trees that are mainly used in manufacturing pulp for paper products, being taken out.
 
"Our goal through this program is to reduce the potential for southern pine beetle attacks on our forests while increasing tree growth and vigor," said Harrington.
 
Thinning minimizes the chances of trees becoming diseased or attacked by insects, especially during times of drought or other extreme weather conditions. It also promotes tree vigor and health by providing more room for remaining trees to grow, creating less competition for available nutrients and water.
 
"This program has a successful history of assisting forest landowners in reducing the potential for their property to host future southern pine beetle attacks, as well as increasing overall forest health and resiliency which is what sound forest management is about," Harrington said.
 
Eligible landowners may receive up to $50 per acre ($5,000 maximum) to conduct first thin operations. The forested property must meet several criteria and be located within one of the 23 priority counties which include: Angelina, Cass, Cherokee, Hardin, Harris, Harrison, Houston, Jasper, Liberty, Marion, Montgomery, Nacogdoches, Newton, Panola, Polk, Rusk, Sabine, San Augustine, San Jacinto, Shelby, Trinity, Tyler and Walker.
 
Applications are due by September 29 and should be submitted through your local Texas A&M Forest Service office. All applications will be reviewed and funded on a first come first serve basis. For an application, additional program criteria and requirements interested landowners can go to http://tfsweb.tamu.edu/SPB or contact their local Texas A&M Forest Service office at http://tfsweb.tamu.edu/contactus .
Gardening tips

It is not too late to plant some potatoes. In fact, late August/early September is the best time to do so in most of the state. They need time to mature before first frost. You don't have to dig a trench for them, either. Just lay the seed pieces on the ground and cover them with a thick layer of mulch or compost (at least 12 inches). The plants will grow through that layer in a week or two. Once the tubers have matured and are ready to harvest, just push the mulch away and enjoy. No hard digging! 

Have a favorite gardening tip you'd like to share? Texas Gardener's Seeds is seeking brief gardening tips from Texas gardeners to use in future issues. If we publish your tip in Seeds, we will send you a copy of Texas Gardene r's 2017 Planning Guide & Calendar. Please send your tips of 50 words or less to the editor at: Garde ning Tips.
Upcoming garden events
 
If you would like your organization's events included in "Upcoming Garden Events" or would like to make a change to a listed event, please contact us at Garden Events. To ensure inclusion in this column, please provide complete details at least three weeks prior to the event.
SEPTEMBER

Austin: The Austin Cactus and Succulent Society will host its Spring Show and Sale on Saturday and Sunday of Labor Day Weekend (September 2 and 3) from 10:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. each day, at the Austin Area Garden Center at Zilker Botanical Garden in Zilker Park (2220 Barton Springs Road). Admission to the show is free with paid admission to Zilker Botanical Garden ($2 adults, $1 children and seniors). The show offers visitors a chance to see rare and beautiful cacti and succulent species from around the world. Several vendors from Texas, Oklahoma and New Mexico will sell native and exotic cacti and succulents, and hand-made pottery at reasonable prices. There will be a daily silent auction and hourly plant raffle of rare and collectible cacti and succulents. Educational information, literature, and expert advice will be available.

Denton: Denton County Master Gardeners will be conducting a "Design Your Own Earth-Kind Landscape" course at 6:30 p.m. each Tuesday from Sept. 5 through Oct. 10 at the Carroll Building, 401 W. Hickory St., Denton. The course concentrates on creating beauty using Earth-Kind practices that conserve time, energy, water and money through thoughtful planning of your yard or garden. Fee for the class is $100 for one person or $125 for a primary participant accompanied by a second participant from the same residence. A book and basic drawing supplies will be provided, as well as snacks and drinks. Both participants will share materials and design the same yard. Laptops, tablets and smart phones are welcome for Web searches. Prior to the class, participants must make a copy of their lot survey, usually a part of the property deed. If participants can't find a copy of their survey, they should check with the realtor who sold them their property. Participants may also download Google Earth for free, type in their address and look at plan and street views of their property. Participants may also wish to visit www.soiltesting.tamu.edu and follow the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service information to have their soil tested before the class. The Urban and Homeowner Soil Sample Information Form will provide instructions for how and where to collect samples, cost and how to mail the sample. Participants may also bring a soil sample to class. For questions or to register online, contact www.dcma.gardenerscaplers@gmail.com or call the Master Gardener help desk at 940-349-2892. Persons with disabilities who require auxiliary aids or services are asked to contact DCMGA at 940-349-2883 five working days prior to the event.

Tomball: Henry Flowers, Festival Hill Gardens, will present "Gifts from the Herb Garden," at 10:00 a.m. Thursday, September 7, at The Arbor Gate, 15635 FM 2920, Tomball. The holiday season may be many months away, but it is not too early to be thinking about making some gift items from the bounty of your herb garden. Perhaps some culinary gifts such as herbal vinegars or sugars, or maybe some dried herbal seasoning blends or teas. A fresh herbal bouquet or a fragrant herbal wreath are always a great gift for any occasion and something made with your own hands is always greatly appreciated. Let your herb garden be your inspiration as a creative means to share with friends and family. For additional information, call 281-351-8851, email info@arborgate.com, or visit www.arborgate.com.

Austin: Bulbs for the Austin Area will be presented 10:00 a.m.-noon, September 9, at Zilker Botanical Garden, 2220 Barton Springs Rd, Austin. Are you tired of planting bulbs that bloom once and you never see them again? Learn some of the reasons bulbs struggle in our climate and soil while others naturalize into generous clumps that you can share with your friends. Travis County Master Gardener Betty Dunn will discuss some reliable and newer varieties that grow well in our area. Seminar is free and open to the public. No RSVP is required. Zilker park entrance fee is $2 per adult, $1 per child (ages 3-12) or seniors (age 62 & over), $3 for non-Austin Residents. Cash or check accepted. For more information contact: Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service - Travis County, 512-854-9600.

Kaufman: Join Kaufman County Master Gardeners for their Fall Seminar Bees, Blossoms & Butterflies on Saturday, September 9, from 8:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. at the First Methodist Church, 414 W. Broad St., Forney. Learn about bees, other pollinators, and native plants that support them from beekeepers Blake Shook of Desert Creek Honey and Becky Bender of BudsandtheBees.com. Cost is $15 if pre-registered and $20 at the door if space permits. Visit kcmga.org for more information and a flier to print. Call 972-932-9069 to pre-register by September 6.

La Marque: "Simply Succulents" with Texas Certified Master Gardener and Creative Director for North Haven Gardens in Dallas Paula Spletter presenting, 9:00 a.m.-11:00 a.m., September 9, at the Galveston County AgriLife Extension in Carbide Park, 4102 Main (Hwy 519), La Marque. Participants must pre-register: Ph 281-534-3413, e-mail galvcountymgs@gmail.com; further details see   www.aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/galveston/index.html. Galveston County Master Gardener event. Fee/Free.
 
La Marque: "Herbs" with Fort Bend County Master Gardener and Coastal Prairie Texas Master Naturalist Tricia Bradbury presenting, 1:00 p.m.-3:00 p.m., September 9, at the Galveston County AgriLife Extension in Carbide Park, 4102 Main (Hwy 519), La Marque. Participants must pre-register: Ph 281-534-3413, e-mail galvcountymgs@gmail.com; further details see www.aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/galveston/index.html. Galveston County Master Gardener event. Fee/Free.

San Angelo: Registration is underway for the 6th Annual Fall Landscape Symposium sponsored by the Concho Valley Master Gardeners, to be held Saturday, September 9, at the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Center, 7887 N. US Highway 87, San Angelo. Due to limited seating, pre-registration is required. Deadline to register is Wednesday, September 6, but don't wait too late seats fill up fast. Three excellent speakers who are tops in their fields will be presenting throughout the day at this year's Symposium: Steve Kainer-Owner/Manager, Hill Country Gardens & Nursery, presnting "Landscape Water Features--Using water features and small ponds in the garden"; Bill Adams-Author and Photographer, presenting "Garden Photography" and "Fall Gardening and Planning for the Spring Tomato Patch"; and Felder Rushing-Author, Radio & TV Personality & Photographer, presnting "Slow Gardening" and "Yard Art--The Good, The Bad and the Unbelievable." Registration cost for the Fall Landscape Symposium is $30 per person. The deadline is Wednesday, September 6. Cost includes refreshments throughout the day and lunch. On the day of the seminar, sign-in starts at 8 a.m. The speakers start at 8:30 a.m. and continue until 3:15 p.m. Due to limited seating, pre-registration is required. No refunds for cancellations. To pay by check or cash, go to txmg.org/conchovalley, download the registration form, and mail or bring it to the Extension Office, 113 W. Beauregard, San Angelo, Texas 76901. You'll also find parking and hotel information on the website. To pay on-line with a credit card, go to http://squareup.com/store/cvmg. For questions or more information call 325-659-6522. No childcare will be provided.

Gonzales: Registration is currently underway for Gonzales Master Gardeners fall class. Classes start September 12 and run through May. Classes are held every other Tuesday from 8:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. at the PACE building located at 623 Fair St., next to Gonzales Elementary. Learn with the experts. Class topics include botany, plant propagation, soils, vegetables, fruit and nut trees, insects, fertilizers, rainwater harvesting, and many more. Contact the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Office at 1709 Sarah DeWitt, Gonzales, call 830-672-8531 for an application and more information, or contact Robbie Cole for more information at 281-734-1391. For more information, visit
http://Gonzales.agrilife.org or http://gonzalesmastergardeners.org.

Marion: Cathy Downs, a conservation specialist with Monarch Watch, will provide a lively, fascinating and up-to-date presentation on monarch butterflies and the health of the species at 7:00 p.m., September 12, at St. John's Lutheran Church, FM 465, Marion. There is a plant/seed exchange at 6:30. For additional information, directions to the church, or membership applications, visit http://npsot.org/wp/guadalupe.

Belton: Bell County Master Gardeners will meet 9:00 a.m.-11:00 a.m., September 13, at the Bell County Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Office, 1605 N. Main, Belton. For additional information, contact carol.j.morisset@gmail.com or j-upchurch@sbcglobal.net.

Georgetown: The Native Plant Society of Texas, Williamson County chapter meeting on September 14 will feature entomologist Mike Quinn, and he plans to "bug us" with information about Pollination Beetles of Texas. Quinn has been involved with the field of entomology for 30 years and has a lot to say about the evolution of flowering plants and which ones cater to beetles. Quinn's background includes a B.S. in Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences and an M.S. in Entomology, both at Texas A&M University. His work history has been diverse and includes working as an entomologist on Monarch Surveys and Beetle Surveys at Texas A&M and on an All Taxa Survey for University of Texas at Austin. Also, at UT-Austin he has been a Curatorial Associate for the UT Insect Collection. Besides working as an entomologist, he has worked as an ornithologist, a botanist and a photojournalist. He has posted photos of over a quarter of Texas' estimated 7500 beetle species in BugGuide. The meeting will be held in the Hewlett Room at the Georgetown Library, 402 Eighth Street, Georgetown, beginning at 7 p.m. Arrive early for fellowship and to pick up some seeds from the seed board. For additional information, contact kshend@verizon.net

Houston: Linda B. Gay will present "Roses Love Companions" at the Houston Rose Society meeting, September 14, 7:30 p.m. at the Cherie Flores Garden Pavillon, 1500 Hermann Drive, Houston. The parking lot is Lot C located at Hermann Drive and Crawford Street. Gay  was director of Mercer Arboretum and Botanic Gardens from 2000-2011. In 2015, she assisted in the development of the new McGovern Centennial Gardens in Hermann Park, sharing her knowledge and love of plants, tweaking new garden plantings and teaching staff and volunteers best management practices for the garden. Gay can be found at The Arbor Gate on the weekends, teaching classes, meeting garden friends and helping newbies pick the best plants for our area. She writes a monthly garden article for Houston House and Home and "talks dirt" with Craig Cohen on Houston Matters Radio. This fall Linda will be an adjunct professor in the Horticulture Department at Houston Community College in Katy.  Free Admission. For more information, visit www.houstonrose.org.

San Antonio: The San Antonio Herb Society's September 14 program features Cristiano Prada, the owner of Austin's Lua Brazil and the maker of a gourmet version of traditional Brazilian breakfast rolls and bite-size snacks. Be the first to taste Pao De Queigo, a South American cheese bread along with three other flavors: basil, jalapeño and vegan. These wholesome, savory snacks are gluten free. They are crunchy on the outside, and warm and gooey in the inside. Learn about using the cassava plant to create gluten-free flour, taste the finished product and consider buying a package to delight visiting guests. Meetings are held at the San Antonio Garden Center, 3310 N. New Braunfels, San Antonio, starting at 6:30 p.m. There is no charge and the public is invited.

La Marque: "A Passion for Plumeria" with Galveston County Master Gardener Loretta Osteen presenting, 1:00 p.m.-3:00 p.m.,  September 16, at the Galveston County AgriLife Extension in Carbide Park, 4102 Main (Hwy 519), La Marque. Participants must pre-register: Ph 281-534-3413, e-mail galvcountymgs@gmail.com; further details see www.aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/galveston/index.html. Galveston County Master Gardener event. Fee/Free.

New Braunfels: Learn all about the sunflower family when Craig Hensley leads "Confusing Composites: An Introduction to the Sunflower Family" at the Lindheimer Native Plant Society (NPSOT) meeting September 19 at the GVTC Auditorium, 36101 FM 3159, New Braunfels. The meeting begins with social time at 6:30 p.m., followed at 7 p.m. by the presentation.

New Braunfels and Sattler: The Native Plant Society needs help in creating plant beds on the grounds of Folk Fest at the Museum of Texas Handmade Furniture in New Braunfels on Wednesday, September 20, and Saturday, September 23; and in establishing screening plantings to separate a neighboring business under construction at Tye Preston Memorial Library in Sattler on Wednesday, September 27, and Saturday, September 30. Times will be posted closer to the dates at http://npsot.org/wp/lindheimer/ or https://www.facebook.com/npsot.lindheimer/.

La Marque: "Bulb Mania" with The Garden Club of Houston award-winning member Dodie Jackson presenting, 9:00 a.m.-11:00 a.m., September 23, at the Galveston County AgriLife Extension in Carbide Park, 4102 Main (Hwy 519), La Marque. Participants must pre-register: Ph 281-534-3413, e-mail galvcountymgs@gmail.com; further details see www.aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/galveston/index.html. Galveston County Master Gardener event. Fee/Free.

La Marque: "Composting, Turning Dirt into Soil & Soil Health Assessment" with Galveston County Master Gardener Jim Gilliam presenting, 1:00 p.m.-3:00 p.m., September 23, at the Galveston County AgriLife Extension in Carbide Park, 4102 Main (Hwy 519), La Marque. Participants must pre-register: Ph 281-534-3413, e-mail galvcountymgs@gmail.com; further details see www.aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/galveston/index.html. Galveston County Master Gardener event. Fee/Free.

Arlington: Native Plant Sale hosted by the Native Plant Society of Texas - North Central Chapter, Saturday, September 30, from 10:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m., at River Legacy Park - Elm Grove Pavilion, 701 NE Green Oaks Blvd., Arlington. All sale plants have been grown organically from local seed by members, so they don't have neonicotinoids. Knowledgeable volunteers will be on hand to answer questions and offer tips. Native plants are better adapted to our climate, have minimal water needs, don't need pesticides or fertilizers, and benefit birds, butterflies and the ecosystem in general. The event raises funds for outreach, including training, education and demonstration gardens. For a list of species with photos, visit http://www.txnativeplants.org/plantsale/index.php.

La Marque: "Favorite Fall Vegetables (Cruciferous & other vegetables)" with Galveston County Master Gardener Gene Speller presenting, 1:00 p.m.-3:00 p.m., September 30, at the Galveston County AgriLife Extension in Carbide Park, 4102 Main (Hwy 519), La Marque. Participants must pre-register: Ph 281-534-3413, e-mail galvcountymgs@gmail.com; further details see www.aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/galveston/index.html. Galveston County Master Gardener event. Many of the vegetables included in this presentation will be offered for sale as transplants at the Galveston County Master Gardener Fall Plant Sale on October 14. Fee/Free.
OCTOBER

Victoria: Victoria County Master Gardeners will have a Fall Plant Sale on October 7 at the MG Pavilion & Victoria Educational Gardens, 283 Bachelor Dr., Victoria. The sale will begin at 8 a.m. and conclude when the plants are sold out. This year the theme will be "Fall Is The Time For Planting" and will have fruit and citrus trees, fall color bowls, fairy gardens, succulents, Texas Superstars, fall annuals, perennial shrubs and color. Arrive early for the best selections.

Tyler: From Bulbs to Blooms - Fall Conference and Sale will be held October 14. Greg Grant, Texas Gardener contributing editor, and Smith County Horticulture Agent and Bulb Expert, will be the featured speaker on Hard to Find Bulbs and Bulbs good for the South. Along with bulbs, trees and shrubs will be available. Registration, 8:30 a.m.; Program, 9:00 a.m.; Sale, 11:30 a.m. Harvey Hall, 2000 W Front St., Tyler. Free and open to the public. For additional information, visit https://txmg.org/smith/coming-events/ or call 903-590-2980.
Monthly meetings
 
If you would like your organization's events included in "Monthly Meetings" or would like to make a change to a listed meeting, please contact us at Monthly Meetings. To ensure inclusion in this column, please provide complete details. 
 
FIRST WEEK
  
Kaufman: The Kaufman County Master Gardeners meet the first Monday of each month at the First Community Church at 1401 Trinity Drive in Crandall. January through April and August and September meetings are at 9 a.m., with the remaining meetings beginning at 7 p.m. For additional information visit http://www.kcmga.org, call 972-932-9069 or email to sbburden@ag.tamu.edu.

Houston: The Harris County Master Gardeners meet at noon the first Tuesday of each month at the Texas AgriLife Extension, 3033 Bear Creek Drive (near the intersection of Highway 6 and Patterson Road), Houston. For additional information visit http://hcmga.tamu.edu
or call 281-855-5600.

Dallas: Garden Masters, Inc., meet the first Wednesday of each month at North Haven Gardens, 7700 Northaven Rd., Dallas. The club hosts different speaker each month from 11:30 a.m.-12:30 p.m. Bring your lunch! For more information, email Bunny Williams at bunny-williams@sbcglobal.net.
 
Kerrville: Hill Country Master Gardeners meet the first Wednesday of each month at 1:00 pm at Hill Country Youth Event Center, 3785 Hwy 27. For more information visit www.hillcountrymastergardeners.org.
 
Midland/Odessa: The Permian Basin Master Gardeners meet at noon, the first Wednesday of each month, lternating between the Midland and Ector County's Extensions Offices. For more information about location, call 432-498-4071 or 432-686-4700.

Navasota: The Navasota Garden Club meets on the first Wednesday of each month (September through May) at 10:00 a.m., usually at the First Baptist Church Family Life Center, 300 Church Street, Navasota. If not meeting at the church, a change of meeting notice will be placed on the door at the North entrance. Guests are welcome. Members are from Grimes County and surrounding counties.
   
Allen: The Allen Garden Club meets at 7 p.m. on the first Thursday of each month, February through December, at the Allen Heritage Center, 100 E. Main St., Allen. For more information, visit www.allengardenclub.org.

Atlanta: The Cass County Master Gardeners meet the first Thursday of each month at the Atlanta Memorial Hospital Conference Room, State Highway 77 @ S. Williams St., Atlanta. A business meeting is followed by an educational program. The public is welcome to attend. For additional information, call 903-756-5391 or visit http://cass.agrilife.org

Fort Worth: The Native Plant Society of Texas - North Central Chapter meets the first Thursday of each month, excluding January and July, at the Fort Worth Botanic Garden, 3220 Botanic Garden Blvd., Fort Worth. Meeting begins at 6:30 p.m., program begins at 7:00 p.m. Guest speakers present educational programs on topics of interest. Members, friends, family, guests and the public are welcome. For a list of speakers and topics or more information, visit http://www.txnativeplants.org.
 
Hempstead: The Waller County Master Gardeners usually meet at 9 a.m. the first Thursday of each month at the Waller County AgriLife Extension Office, 846 6th St., Hempstead. For more information on the meeting schedule, visit http://txmg.org/wallermg or call 979-826-7651.
 
Gonzalas: Gonzales Master Gardeners hold their monthly meeting at noon on the first Thursday of each month at 623 Fair Street, Gonzales. Bring a bag lunch, drinks provided. Contact AgriLife Extension Office at 830-672-8531 or visit http://gonzalesmastergardeners.org for more information.

New Braunfels: The Comal Garden Club meets the first Thursday of each month at 9:30 a.m. at Southbank Clubhouse, 222 Southbank Blvd., New Braunfels.

Hempstead: The Peckerwood Garden Conservation Foundation, 20559 F.M. 359, Hempstead, hosts a special Peckerwood Insider's Tour at 10 a.m. on the first Saturday of each month. Spaces are limited so pre-registration is required. $15, free for members. For more information, visit http://www.peckerwoodgarden.org/explore/visit-peckerwood-garden/.
 
SECOND WEEK
 
Austin: Austin Organic Gardeners Club meets at 6:30 p.m. on the second Monday of each month (except December) at the Austin Area Garden Center, 2220 Barton Springs Road, Zilker Botanical Gardens in Austin. For more information, visit www.austinorganicgardeners.org.

Jacksonville: The Cherokee County Master Gardeners meet on the second Monday of each month at 9:30 a.m. at Woodmen of the World, 1800 College Ave., Jacksonville. For more information, e-mail Tom Abbott at tom@deerfield-abbey.org.

Glen Rose: The Glen Rose Garden Club meets at 10 a.m. on the second Tuesday of each month (September through May) at the Somervell County Community Center in Glen Rose. For additional information, email stringer030@yahoo.com.

Glen Rose: The Prairie Rose Chapter of the Native Plant Society of Texas meets at 6 p.m. on the second Monday of each month at the Somerville County Citizen Center, 209 SW Barnard St., Glen Rose. For additional information, email prairierose.npsot@gmail.com
 
Harrison County: The Harrison County Master Gardeners meet on the second Tuesday of each month in the Harrison County Annex building, 102 W Houston St. (south side of the square), Marshall. Meetings are held in the 2nd floor AgriLife Extension meeting room. For more information, call 903-935-8413, or email wannagrow2@gmail.com.   
 
Marion: The Guadalupe County (Schertz/Seguin) Chapter of the Native Plant Society of Texas meets on the second Tuesday of each month except July, August and December at St. John's Lutheran Church in Marion. Directions to St. John's Lutheran Church: From FM 78 turn south onto FM 465 and the church is just past the Marion School on the right. From IH-10 go north on FM 465 towards Marion. The Church will be on the left, just before you get to town. A plant exchange and meet-and-greet begins at 6:30 p.m. followed by the program at 7 p.m. Visitors are welcome. For more information or an application to join NPSOT visit www.npsot.org/GuadalupeCounty/ or contact guadalupecounty@npsot.org.
 
Quitman: The Quitman Garden Club meets at 2 p.m. the second Tuesday of each month at the Quitman Library on E Goode Street, Quitman. It is a diverse group that welcomes all visitors. For more information, e-mail quitmangardenclub@gmail.com.
 
Denton:  The Denton County Master Gardener Association meets from 9:30 a.m. until 11 a.m. the
second Wednesday of each month . Meetings are open to the public. For complete details, visit  http://dcmga.com/.
 
Humble: The Mercer Arboretum & Botanic Garden, 22306 Aldine Westfield Road, Humble, hosts a Lunch Bunch the second Wednesday of each month from noon until 2 p.m. Take a sack lunch or order a box lunch from Starbucks when you call 281-443-8731 to reserve your spot. Master Gardeners and Masters Naturalists may earn CEU credits by attending.
 
Jacksboro: The Jacksboro Garden Club meets at 9:30 a.m. the second Wednesday of each month (except June, July and August) at the Concerned Citizens Center, 400 East Pine Street, Jacksboro. For more information, call Melinda at 940-567-6218.
 
Longview: The Gregg County Master Gardeners Association's Learn at Lunch program meet the second Wednesday of each month. The business meeting begins at 11:30 a.m., with the program at noon, at the AgriLife Extension Office, 405 E. Marshall Ave., Longview. The program is presented for horticultural education and is free to the public. For further information call 903-236-8429, visit www.txmg.org/gregg, or like us on Facebook at Gregg County Master Gardeners. 
 
Rockport: The Rockport Herb & Rose Study Group, founded in March 2003, meets the
second Wednesday of each month at 10 a.m. at 619 N. Live Oak Street, Room 14, Rockport, to discuss all aspects of using and growing herbs, including historical uses and tips for successful propagation and cultivation. Sometimes they take field trips and have cooking demonstrations in different locations. For more information, contact Linda 361-729-6037, Ruth 361-729-8923 or Cindy 979-562-2153 or visit www.rockportherbs.or g and http://rockportherbies.blogspot.com.
 
Woodway: The McLennan County Master Gardeners meet on the second Wednesday each month at noon at the Carleen Bright Arboretum, 9001 Bosque Blvd., Woodway. Educational programs follow the business session. For more information, call 254-757-5180.
 
Beaumont: The Jefferson County Master Gardeners meet at 6 p.m. (social) 7:00 (meeting) the second Thursday of each month except in July in the AgriLife Extension auditorium, 1225 Pearl 2nd floor (downtown Beaumont next to the Court House). For more information contact: 409-835-8461 or txmg.org/jcmg.
 
Georgetown: The Williamson County Chapter of the Native Plant Society of Texas meets from 7 p.m. until 9 p.m. the second Thursday of each month at the Georgetown Public Library, 402 W. 8th Street. Georgetown. For additional information, contract Kathy Henderson at kshend@verizon.net or visit http://www.npsot.org/wp/wilco.
 
Orange: The Orange County Master Gardeners Association holds their monthly meeting on the
second Thursday of each month. A short program is presented. The meeting starts at 6:30 p.m. at the new Orange County Expo Center on Hwy 1442 in Orangefield. Enter the building in the front entrance, first door on the right, Texas AgriLife offices. Pot luck supper at 6 p.m. Visit http://txmg.org/orange for more information.

Pasadena : The Harris County Precinct 2 Master Gardeners hold an educational program at 10 a.m. on the  second Thursday of each month  at The Genoa Friendship Garden Educational Building at 1202 Genoa Red Bluff, Pasadena. The programs are free and open to the public. For more information, visit http://hcmgap2.tamu.edu .

San Antonio: The San Antonio Herb Society meets at 7 p.m. on the second Thursday of each month at the San Antonio Garden Center, 3310 N. New Braunfels (corner of Funston & N. New Braunfels). For more information on programs, visit www.sanantonioherbs.org.

Smithville: The Smithville Community Gardens meets at 5:30 p.m. the second Thursday of each month at the Smithville Recreation Center. 
 
Angleton: The Brazoria County Master Gardeners meet at 11 a.m. on the second Friday of each month at the Brazoria County Extension Office, 21017 County Road 171, Angleton. There is a general business meeting followed by a brief educational program each month. For further information call 979-864-1558, ext.110.
 
College Station: The A&M Garden Club meets on the second Friday of each month during the school year at 9:30 a.m. in the training room of the College Station Waste Water Facility building at the end of North Forest Parkway, College Station. Expert speakers, plant sharing, and federated club projects help members learn about gardening in the Brazos Valley, floral design, conservation, and more. For more information, visit http://www.amgardenclub.com/.
 
Houston: The Spring Branch African Violet Club meets the second Saturday of each month, January through November, at 10:30am at the Copperfield Baptist Church, 8350 Highway 6 North, Houston. Call Karla at 281-748-8417 prior to attending to confirm meeting date and time.
  
Kilgore: Northeast Texas Organic Gardeners meets at 1:30 p.m. on the second Saturday of each month. For more information, call Carole Ramke at 903-986-9475.
 
Dallas: The Rainbow Garden Club of North Texas meets the second Sunday of each month at 2 p.m. Everyone is welcome. Meetings are held at member's homes and garden centers around the area. For more information, visit www.RainbowGardenClub.com.
 
THIRD WEEK
 
Arlington: The Arlington Men's Garden Club meets from 7 p.m. until 9 p.m. on the third Monday of each month (except December) at the Bob Duncan Center, 2800 S. Center Street, Arlington. For more information, contact Lance Jepson at LJepson@aol.com.
 
Cleburne: The Johnson County Master Gardener's meet on the third Monday of each month at McGregor House, 1628 W Henderson, Cleburne. Meeting times are at 2 p.m. October through April, except December and at 6 p.m. May through September. An educational program precedes the business meeting. For additional information, contact Sue Matern at 817-517-9076.
  
New Braunfels: The Comal Master Gardeners meet at 6 p.m. the third Monday of each month (except April and December,) at the  GVTC Auditorium, 36101 FM 3159, New Braunfels. An educational program precedes the business meeting. The public is invited to attend. For additional information, call 830-620-3440 or visit http://txmg.org/comal/. 

Texarkana: The Four Corners Chapter of Native Plant Society of Texas meets at 7 p.m. on the third Monday of each month at the Southwest Center, 3222 W. 7th St. (U.S. 67), Texarkana. Visitors are welcome. For additional information, contact Belinda McCoy at 903-424-7724 or blackmtngardens@yahoo.com
 
Corpus Christi: The Nueces Master Gardeners meet at noon the third Tuesday of each month, except December, at Garden Senior Center, 5325 Greely Dr., Corpus Christi. An educational program precedes the business meeting. For further information call 361 767-5217.
 
Evant: The Evant Garden Club meets on the third Tuesday of each month at 10 a.m., usually at the bank in downtown Evant. To confirm the date, time and place of each month's meeting, call 254-471-5860. 
 
New Braunfels: The Lindheimer Chapter (Comal County) of the Native Plant Society of Texas meets on the third Tuesday of each month at  6:30 pm at the GVTC Auditorium, 36101 FM 3159, New Braunfels. Meetings include an informative speaker and a Plant of the Month presentation. Meetings are free and visitors are welcome. For more information,visit www.npsot.org/w/lindheimer Note : there will be no meeting in June or December.
 
Rockport: Monthly meetings of the Aransas/San Patricio Master Gardeners are held at 10 a.m. on the third Tuesday of each month at Texas AgriLife Extension Service - Aransas County Office, 892 Airport Rd., Rockport. For additional information, e-mail aransas-tx@tamu.edu or call 361-790-0103.
 
Sugar Land: The Sugar Land Garden Club meets on the third Tuesday of each month, September through November and January through April at 10 a.m. at the Knights of Columbus Hall, 702 Burney Road, Sugar Land. The club hosts a different speaker each month. For more information, visit www.sugarlandgardenclub.org.
 
Denton: The Denton Organic Society, a group devoted to sharing information and educating the public regarding organic principles, meets the third Wednesday of each month (except July, August and December) at the Denton Senior Center, 509 N. Bell Avenue. Meetings are free and open to the public. Meetings begin at 7 p.m. and are preceded by a social at 6:30. For more information, call 940-382-8551.
 
Glen Rose: The Somervell County Master Gardeners meet at 10 a.m., the third Wednesday of each month at the Somervell County AgriLife Extension office, 1405 Texas Drive, Glen Rose. Visitors are welcome. For more information, call 254-897-2809 or visit www.somervellmastergardeners.org.
 
Granbury: The Lake Granbury Master Gardeners meet at 1 p.m. on the third Wednesday of each month at the Hood County Annex 1, 1410 West Pearl Street, Granbury. The public is invited to attend. There is an educational program each month preceding the business meeting. For information on topics call 817-579-3280 or visit http://www.hoodcountymastergardeners.org/.
 
Brownwood: Brownwood Garden Club meets the third Thursday of each month, 11:30 a.m.- 1 p.m.  The club meetings are at Southside Baptist Church, 1219 Indian Creek Road, with refreshments and a speaker presentation. Visitors are welcome. For more information, email boeblingen@centex.net or call 817-454-8175.
 
Hallettsville: The Hallettsville Garden Club meets at 2 p.m. on the third Thursday of each month from September through May, at the Hallettsville Garden and Cultural Center, 605 E 2nd St, Hallettsville. Each month, the club hosts speakers that provide informative programs on a wide range of gardening subjects, and refreshments are provided by member hostesses after the business meeting. Visitors are welcome. Please email Sharon Harrigan at sharonspetals@yahoo.com for more information.

Houston:
The Native Plant Society of Texas - Houston (NPSOT-H) meets at 7:30 p.m. on the third Thursday of each month except for October (4th Thursday) at the Houston SArboretum and Nature Center in Memorial Park (4501 Woodway Dr.). For more information on programs, and for information about native plants for Houston, visit http:/npsot.org/wp/Houston.

San Antonio: The Bexar County Master Gardeners (BCMG) meet on the third Thursday of each month at the Texas AgriLife Extension Office, 3355 Cherry Ridge Dr., Suite 208, San Antonio. During the months of Jan., March, May, July, Sep. and Nov., an evening meeting begins with a social time at 6 p.m. followed by a free presentation from 6:30-8:30 p.m. During the intervening months (Feb., April, June, Aug., Oct., Dec.), afternoon educational seminars/general meetings are held from 1-3:30 p.m. Check http://www.bexarmg.org/ to verify meeting date for any given month, as circumstances could require a change, and to find information on the speaker and topic scheduled for each meeting.
 
Seguin: The Guadalupe County Master Gardeners meets at 6:30 p.m. the third Thursday of each month, at the AgriLife Building, 210 East Live Oak, Seguin. After a brief social hour, the meeting and guest speaker begins at 7 p.m. The meeting is free and open to the public. For additional information, call 830-303-3889 or visit www.guadalupecountymastergardeners.org.

Hempstead: The Peckerwood Garden Conservation Foundation, 20559 F.M. 359, Hempstead, hosts the Evening at Peckerwood Lecture series at 7 p.m. on the third Friday of each month. Tickets are available online. Tickets are $10, $5 for members.For more information, visit http://www.peckerwoodgarden.org/explore/visit-peckerwood-garden/.

FOURTH WEEK
 
Brackenridge Park: The Native Plant Society San Antonio Chapter meets every fourth Tuesday of each month at 7 p.m. in the Lions Field Adult and Senior Center, 2809 Broadway at E. Mulberry, Brackenridge Park, except August and December. Social and seed/plant exchange at 6:30 p.m. Free and open to the public. For more information, contact Bea at 210-999-7292 or visit www.npsot.org/sanantonio.
 
Bryan: The Brazos County Master Gardeners, a program of Texas AgriLife Extension, meet the fourth Tuesday of the month at 7 p.m. at the Brazos Center, 3232 Briarcrest Drive, Bryan. There is a public gardening program at each meeting and pertinent information may be found at brazosmg.com or 979-823-0129.
 
Edna: The Jackson County Master Gardeners present their "Come Grown With Us" seminars on the fourth Tuesday of each month, January through October, beginning at 7 p.m. at 411 N. Wells, Edna. The seminars are free, open to the public and offer 2 CEU hours to Master Gardeners or others requiring them. For additional information, contact the Jackson County Extension Office at 361-782-3312.
 
Linden: The Caddo Wildflower Chapter of Native Plants Society meets the fourth Tuesday of each month at the senior citizens building at 507 S Kaufman St. in Linden at 6:30. Visitors are welcome. For additional information, contact Karen Tromza at khtromza@yahoo.com.
 
Fort Worth: The Organic Garden Club of Forth Worth meets at 7 p.m. on the fourth Tuesday of each month except July and December at the Deborah Beggs Moncrief Garden Center, 3220 Botanic Blvd., Ft. Worth. Refreshments are served. For more information, call 817-263-9322 or visit www.ogcfw.webs.com.
 
San Antonio: The Native Plant Society of Texas San Antonio Chapter meets the fourth Tuesday of each month, except August and December, at the Lions Field Adult & Senior Center, 2809 Broadway, San Antonio. Social and plant/seed exchange at 6:30 p.m., program at 7:00 p.m. For more information, visit www.npsot.org/sanantonio or email npsot.sanantonio@gmail.com.
 
Houston: The Houston Native Prairie Association meets at 7 p.m. on the fourth Wednesday of each month at the Cherie Flores Pavilion in McGovern Centennial Gardens at Hermann Park, 1500 Hermann Drive, Houston. For more information, contact hnpat@prairies.org.

Austin: The Garden Club of Austin meets at Zilker Botanical Gardens auditorium, 2220 Barton Springs Rd., Austin, at 7:00 p.m. on the fourth Thursday of each month. 7:00-7:30 p.m. Refreshments and Social, followed by a presentation at 7:30 p.m. Free. For additional information, visit http://thegardenclubofaustin.org/.

Leander: The Leander Garden Club meets on the fourth Thursday of each month (except July and August) at 10:30 a.m. at the community room behind the Greater Texas Federal Credit Union,1300 N. Bell, Cedar Park, unless there is special event planned. Following a program and short business meeting, we share a pot-luck luncheon. To confirm the meeting place and time, please call president Cathy Clark-Ramsey at 512-963-4698 or email info@leandergc.org.
 
Dallas: The Dallas County Master Gardeners meet the fourth Thursday of each month at 11:30 a.m. For location and program information, visit h ttp://www.dallascountymastergardeners.org/ or contact The Helpdesk, M-F, 8 to 4:30 214-904-3053.
 
Dallas: The Greater Dallas Organic Garden Club meets at 7:00 p.m. on the fourth Thursday of each month at the REI, 4515 LBJ Freeway, Dallas. For more information, call 214-824-2448 or visit www.gdogc.org.
  
Arlington: The Arlington Organic Garden Club meets from 7 p.m. until 9 p.m. on the last Thursday of each month (except November and December) at the Bob Duncan Center, 2800 S. Center Street, Arlington. For more information, contact David at 817-483-7746.

Hempstead: The Peckerwood Garden Conservation Foundation, 20559 F.M. 359, Hempstead, holds an Open Day, 10 a.m.-3 p.m. on the fourth Saturday of each month. Tours start at 10 a.m. and the last tour leaves at 2 p.m. Tickets available online or at the gate. $10, free for members. For more information, visit http://www.peckerwoodgarden.org/explore/visit-peckerwood-garden/.
 
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