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Volume IV
Issue 15

              Weekly Updates in Pediatrics         April 10, 2013

EDITOR:  Jack Wolfsdorf, MD, FAAP                   

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Anteroposterior (AP) &/or "Frog- leg" (FL) pelvic radiographs for hip Dysplasia

Frequently both AP and FL lateral radiograph of the hip are used to assess acetabular dysplasia.

 

As children's tissues are more sensitive to ionizing radiation a study comparing data obtained from AP and FL radiographs for hip dysplasia was undertaken.

 

Little difference exists between information obtained by AP or FL radiographic examination for hip dysplasia and either one imaging technique should be utilized.

 

Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA)

For the past few years TH following in-hospital cardiac arrest has been utilized to improve outcomes. Its use for OHCA patients remains controversial.

 

175 OHCH patients who underwent TH in an ICU and whose outcomes were compared to a matched control group receiving standard supportive therapy, indicates both improved survival to discharge and neurological outcomes in the TH treated patient.

  

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Lip piercings' material & the risk of infection  

 

80 subjects with sterile lip piercings made from 4 different materials had microbiologic samples collected and analyzed 2 weeks post insertion.

 

Stainless steel piercings have a significantly higher microbial load and potential risk for development of a pathogenic biofilm than those piercings made from polypropylene and/or polytetrafluroethylene.

 

Source:  Pediatric Dentistry  

Exposure to atrazine (garden herbicide) during pregnancy & risk of congenital abnormality in offspring

 

Atrazine is the most widely used residential herbicide in the USA and considered to be a chemical that disrupts the normal function of the endocrine system.

 

A study of 280 infants with nonsyndromic congenital abnormalities whose pregnant mothers were exposed to high levels of residential atrazine, was used and were compared to a matched control group with low exposure.

 

Pregnant women exposed to high levels of atrazine appear to have a linear 2-fold increase of choanal atresia or stenosis in their offspring.

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Mild head trauma in infants & risk of cerebral infarction   

 

Data including clinical manifestations, imaging and laboratory findings form 16 infants (median age: 13.5 months) who had suffered a mild head trauma were collected and analyzed. All children developed neurologic symptoms (hemiparesis, facial paresis and convulsions) within 72 hours after trauma, a majority within 30 minutes. Two risk factors were identified.

 

Cerebral infarction following mild head trauma can occur in infants particularly in the presence of cerebral calcification or cytomegalovirus infection.

 

Source:  Pediatric Neurology 

Small bowel reconstruction outcomes following severe short bowel syndrome

 

Severe short bowel syndrome (SBS) requires prolonged parenteral feeding (PN) which carries multiple risks.

 

Autologous intestinal reconstruction (AIR) methods were utilized in 13 infants (median age: 16 months) with severe (residual small intestine length 28cm) SBS, and followed for 4.9/14 years. 8/13 children remained off PN 6.9 years after surgery. All have grown and gained weight reasonably and have normal liver function.

 

AIR surgery can provide long-term survival without PN and provide a satisfactory health outcome.

  

Source: Journal of Pediatric Surgery