May 7,  2014   Vol. V, Issue 19
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Lactobacillus acidophilus LB to treat acute gastroenteritis in childhood.

L. acidophilus ("acid-loving milk-bacterium") occurs naturally in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Some strains may have probiotic characteristics. Many strains have been studied and there is some evidence that some may reduce the incidence of pediatric diarrhea.


A meta analyses of four randomized controlled trials involving 304 children aged 1-48 months, indicates that there appears to be some evidence that L. acidophilus LB reduces the duration of diarrhea in hospitalized (but not for those who are out-patient) infants.


Acta Paediatrica

Late development of complete atrioventricular block (AVB).

"AV block is defined as a delay or interruption in the transmission of an impulse from the atria to the ventricles due to an anatomical or functional impairment in the conduction system". Common terminology describes it as "first degree" (slowed conduction); "second degree" (missed beat) and "third degree" (complete AV block). It may transient or permanent. Congenital third degree heart block may be "immune" (frequently Systemic Lupus antibodies from the mother-autoantibodies) or "non-immune" in etiology.


A study investigating the correlation between maternal autoantibodies and age at diagnosis of complete AV block (AVB), indicates that 88% have maternal autoantibodies (an "immune" etiology ), and that these may give rise to AVB much later than during the neonatal period (age range: 4 months- 43 years!).

Acta Paediatrica 

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Energy drinks & alcohol: Links to behaviors & consequences.


A study involving 508 College students in a longitudinal measurement-burst design (14-day bursts of daily surveys in 4 consecutive College semesters) examined the short-term consequences of consuming alcohol plus energy drinks against drinking alcohol alone, within-person and between-person differences for individuals.


Imbibing energy drinks on a day in which alcohol is consumed appears to be associated with increased alcohol intake, more hours spent drinking, and a greater likelihood of clinical intoxication. "Use of energy drinks plus alcohol represents an emerging threat to public health".


Journal of Adolescent Health

Video Feature  
Dangerous Mix: Energy drinks and alcohol
Dangerous Mix: Energy drinks and alcohol
via YouTube

Pediatric injuries associated with "high chairs"/"chairs".


A retrospective analysis of data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (2003-2010) indicates that an estimated 9,421 injuries are associated with the use of "high chairs" and 40,889 "chair related" injuries are treated in USA Emergency Departments annually (a 22.4% increase between the two time periods).


"Falling" is the most common injury associated with "high chairs" (92.8%) and "chairs" (87.3%) with closed head injury being most frequent (37.3%). Caregivers need to insure "high-chair" safety restraint systems are utilized, and children in "chairs" require to be taught to behave appropriately.


Clinical Pediatrics

Intravenous (IV) hypotonic solution in infants with moderate Bronchiolitis.

A study of 36 infants (mean age: 3.7 months) with a diagnosis of moderate bronchiolitis given a hypotonic IV solution in the first 24 hours of admission, indicates, that within this short time period both serum sodium and serum osmolalities drop significantly.


Acta Paediatrica

Headache after lumbar puncture (LP).


A randomized crossover trial of 341 LP's in 4-15 year old children, comparing the frequency of post-procedural headache following the use of either a 22 gauge vs. 25 gauge needle indicates little difference in post-LP headache. Either gauge needle (depending on circumstances) may be appropriate for LP use in children.


Archives of Disease in Childhood



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