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                Weekly Updates in Pediatrics         October 17, 2012 

EDITOR:  Jack Wolfsdorf, MD, FAAP 

 

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Effect of honey on nocturnal cough/sleep quality in children with upper respiratory tract infections (URTI)

An interesting study on 300 children with cough and sleep difficulties associated with a URTI was performed in which a single dose of 3 different forms of honey or a placebo was given, and their clinical state compared to the night before treatment.

 

Honey products (independent of type) given to children with URTI provides significant improvement in cough/sleep patterns compared either to a placebo or the clinical state prior to treatment.

 

Source: Pediatrics

Perioperative dexamethasone administration and risk of bleeding following tonsillectomy

Steroids in tonsillectomy are used to reduce post-operative nausea and/or vomiting.

 

A single perioperative dose of 0.5 mg/kg dexamethasone administered to children 3-18 years of age, undergoing tonsillectomy appears to indicate (compared to a placebo-given group of matched children) no increase in admission for postoperative bleeding or required reoperation to control excessive postoperative bleeding.

 

Source: JAMA

Procalcitonin level (PCT) and community acquired pneumonia (CAP)

It appears from a study of 126 adult patients with CAP, that PCT levels measured in the Emergency Department may significantly correlate with the severity of the clinical CAP and subsequent mortality.

 

Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine

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Development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and preterm erythropoietin (EPO) administration


The incidence of BPD remains high in premature infants. EPO mobilizes circulating endothelial progenitor cells and appears to enhance lung repair in animal models.

 

A retrospective evaluation of 297 live born infants (500-1500 gms: GA 22-32 weeks) who received EPO and who were compared to a similar non-treated group, indicates a close beneficial association between EOP administration and BPD rate, when EPO treatment is initiated prior to 4 weeks of age.

 

Source: Neonatology

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Benefits of sex education on social behaviors

 

A study was undertaken to examine the association between "sex education," "only abstinence," "abstinence and birth control" or "neither," of 4,691 individuals age 15-24 years, which examined the associations between them.

 

Instruction regarding "abstinence and birth control" (as compared to other topics) more likely results in condom use at first sex, appropriately aged sexual partners and healthier sexual and reproductive behaviors.

 

Source:  Journal of Adolescent Health 

Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver in children (NAFL)

 
NAFL is becoming one of the most common liver diseases in children/adolescents affecting approximately 5% of children. While usually a benign condition frequently associated with obesity (and the Metabolic Syndrome), some children will develop non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) which can lead to severe liver scarring and cirrhosis. Diagnosis depends on abnormalities of liver enzymes and confirmed by liver ultrasound and biopsy. Treatment remains a challenge.

Source:  Journal of Adolescent Health   

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