Calibrating post hemorrhagic ventricular dilatation (PHVD)/ subsequent Neurodevelopment using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Premature infants frequently present with intraventricular hemorrhage and subsequent hydrocephalus. This results in a fairly wide range of mental and physical disabilities.
Brain volumes on MRI were calculated at term following PHVD in 25 preterm infants and Development Quotients (DQ) assessed at 2 years post-term.
PHVD significantly affects subsequent total cerebral and cerebellar volumes. Total cerebral volume (excluding ventricles) at term correlates directly with subsequent mental and motor DQ at 2 years of age.
Factors predicting the need for splenectomy in children following blunt splenic trauma
A small retrospective analysis of children with splenic trauma indicates that hemodynamic instability (and the need for blood transfusion) Glasgow coma score and injury severity score, correlate with the need for splenectomy. In general CT grading is a poor predictor.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Disease severity, and psychiatric symptoms in perinatal affected youth
Children 6-17 years of age with prenatally acquired HIV disease on treatment, have psychiatric symptoms (ADHD, depression, conduct disorders), cognitive, academic and social functioning abnormalities which correlate with viral illness severity markers.
A large (1037) 38 year prospective longitudinal study of infants who had their genetic risk score (single nucleotide polymorphisms previously identified to be associated with chronic obesity in adulthood) assessed was used to examine the relationship between the genetic risk of obesity and family history. (as assessed by parent body mass index when patients were 11 years of age).
Babies with higher genetic risk scores grow more rapidly during early childhood (unrelated to birth size) and appear more likely to be obese in adulthood. Obesity research/preventive strategies should focus on preventing early childhood weight gain.
Higher adult BP (even without hypertension) is predicted by childhood BP. It appears that adults who regularly eat dark chocolate, may lower their BP, but whether the chocolate affects children's BP is unknown.
In a small short-term trial, 94 children (10-12 years of age) were randomized to have a baseline/follow-up BP's taken and to either receive 7 gms of dark chocolate daily at school, or not.
While giving dark chocolate to school children is feasible and acceptable it does not appear in the short term to improve BP.