Aug. 16, 2017
Volume VIII |  Issue No. 33


Pediatric firearm-related injuries in the United States
Pediatric firearm-related deaths and injuries are a national public health crisis". Guns are present in 18-64% of US homes; 40% of parents believe that children don't know where the guns are stored and 22% wrongly believe that their children have never handled a household gun. Children are more likely to be victims of unintentional injuries (the majority of which occur in the home) and adolescents are frequently injured (or die) from assaults or suicide. Pediatricians need to inquire about the presence of guns in the home, their access, and need to encourage safe storage. Universal background check have been shown to decrease gun homicides across all ages, and gun safety laws have decreased unintentional firearm deaths and suicides in children.

Maternal intake of sugar in pregnancy and risk of allergy/asthma in offspring
An analysis of free sugar intake during pregnancy and respiratory and atopy outcomes in 8,956 of their children (aged 7-9 years of age) from a longitudinal, population-based birth cohort found, after controlling for potential confounders, that higher maternal intake of free sugar during pregnancy is associated with an increased risks in their offspring for atopy (hay fever, eczema, etc.) and doctor-diagnosed asthma.

Antenatal smoking and antisocial teen behavior
There appears to be a small-to-moderate causal effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on adolescent and adult antisocial behavior. As a smoking in pregnancy remains prevalent particularly among teenage mothers and mothers with less than high school education, educating mothers to this potentially modifiable risk may have substantial societal impact.
 
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Risk factors for pediatric C. difficile 
 
An analysis of >1,300 children in the US military health system database examining risk factors for C. difficile indicates:
  1. Fluoroquinolones, clindamycin, third-generation cephalosporin, proton pump inhibitors and several classes of antibiotics are linked to subsequent C. difficile infection.
  2. Children managed in the outpatient setting are 35% more likely to develop the infection compared to matched controls.
  3. A parent with C. difficile infection increases the risk for their children.
Video Feature
C. difficile
C. difficile
Video Feature
Firearms and Children
Firearms and Children
Hydroxyurea for sickle cell anemia (SCA) 
 
In SCA children, while hydroxyurea may enhance normal urine output and increase a child's ability to concentrate urine, it apparently has little effect on the incidence of acute chest syndrome, painful crises or hospitalizations.
 
Cochran Database of Systematic Reviews
Parents' television (TV) behavior and children's viewing trajectories

"Excessive television exposure has negative impact on a child's development, health and behavior". "TV viewing behavior is habit-forming".

Data from a prospective longitudinal study of 18,577 babies examined childhood TV viewing at 18, 36 and 66 months and related it to parents' TV behavior.

Children's viewing trajectories may be characterized as "low", "increasing" or "high". At 18 months more than 90% of children view TV and 40% do so for more than 2 hours/day.

It appears that a child's TV viewing trajectory is significantly associated with a child's sex (boys > girls), with less viewing occurring in children in a daycare setting, and with greater maternal education and parental income. Finally greater parental (mother and/or father) TV time is a strong predictor of an increased child viewing trajectory.


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  Short course prednisolone therapy during upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and frequency of relapse in childhood nephrotic syndrome (NS)
 
"Relapses of childhood nephrotic syndrome are frequently precipitated by viral upper respiratory tract infections".

It appears from a double-blind, placebo-control study of 33 nephrotic children (with 115 episodes of URTI) prospectively assigned to receive either a five day course of prednisolone (0.5mg daily) or a placebo at the onset of an URTI and followed for one year (during which time URTI-induced relapse frequency was noted) that treating children with nephrotic syndrome (who are off steroids) with a five day course of prednisolone at the onset of a URTI significantly reduces URTI induced nephrotic syndrome relapse frequency.
 
 
Pediatric Nephrology 
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