July 22, 2015
Volume VI, Issue No. 29

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Epilepsy after resolution of presumed childhood encephalitis.  

A study of 99 boys and girls (aged 2 months - 17 years) with suspected encephalitis without preexisting neurological conditions was undertaken to evaluate factors associated with the development of subsequent epilepsy.


Childhood encephalitis presenting with a seizure, requiring >1 drug to control seizures, an abnormal EEG, long hospital stay, a need for medically induced coma, being on antiepileptic drugs on discharge, or needing readmission after discharge, all enhance the likelihood of developing epilepsy (of patients being able to begin weaning off antiepileptic drugs during hospitalization, 42% are drug free within 6 months).


Pediatric Neurology  


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Risk of Intussusception after Rotavirus vaccination.

A meta-analysis of 5 post-licensures survey studies examined the relative risk of intussusception following dose 1 and/or post-dose 2 of both Rotarex and RotaTeq ( both live attenuated vaccines) during a 7 day-period following administration.

The estimated overall relative risk of developing intussusception after a dose of either rotavirus vaccines is low, suggesting that the risk is a "class effect" of the current oral rotavirus vaccines.


Pediatrics Infections Disease Journal 

Urinary neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) to define acute kidney injury (AKI) in asphyxiated infants.

AKI is associated with a poor prognosis in critically sick children. While serum creatinine rises following AKI, increases usually takes many hours to days.


NGAL is a protein produced as part of the innate immune system. Kidney damage induces the expression of a large number of proteins in the serum and in the urine; NGAL being one of them, correlating with its severity


Urinary NGAL on day one of AKI predicts the rise of serum creatinine level and correlates with clinical outcomes following infant asphyxiation.


Pediatric Nephrology



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Clinical analysis of 134 children with Nervous System (CNS) damage caused by Enterovirus 71 infection (EV71).  


A retrospective clinical and outcomes analysis of 134 laboratory confirmed pediatric patients with EV71 CNS infection indicates:


1.    Infection is more common in patients 1 - 4years of age.


2.    Males > females.


3.    Peak months April - July.


4.    41% of patients present with hand, foot and mouth disease. 


5.    95% present with fever (lasting average 5.3 days).


6.   55% have aseptic meningitis, 18% brain stem encephalitis, 15% acute flaccid paralysis, 9% acute pan -encephalitis and 3% encephalomyelitis. 


7.    Prognosis is excellent (no deaths in this study and at follow up 98.5% of patients had normal physical and neurophysiological abilities).


Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 

Video Feature

via YouTube   

Reading & the Brain
Reading & the Brain
Music & the Brain
Music & the Brain

How learning to read changes a child's brain - oral language and reading ability.


Behavioral and neuro imaging correlate and reinforces data suggesting that oral language is the foundation for the establishment of proficient reading. An intact biological system and a stimulating "Home Literacy Environment" enhances reading acquisition.


Acta Paeditriaca

Can Celiac Disease (CD) be predicted by high levels of anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (tTG-IgA) in population screening?


A subset study of a cross-sectional CD screening study of 13,279 children who had a blood test for tTG-IgA plus a small intestine biopsy, indicates that all children with serum tTG-IgA levels 10 times higher than the upper limit for normal have biopsy evidence of CD. It appears that following ESPGHAN guidelines, many children with suspected CD may not require small intestinal biopsy.


Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 

Humidified High-flow nasal cannula (HHHFNC) vs. nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS).


A randomized, controlled, prospective, pilot study comparing HHHFNC and NIPPV in infants (gestational age <35 weeks; Birth weight >1,000gms) with RDS, suggests that HHHFNC may be as effective as NIPPV in preventing endotracheal intubation in the primary treatment of RDS in preterm infants.


Pediatric Pulmonology
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