Oct. 12, 2016
Volume VII | Issue No. 41

Association of labor induction with offspring risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD)
"Induction of labor is a frequently performed obstetrical intervention". A follow-up study of all live births in Sweden between 1992 and 2005 (1,362,950 births) of which 1.6% (22,077) offspring were diagnosed with ASD by ages 8 through 21 years, indicates that after adjustments for environmental and genetic factors labor induction is NOT associated with offspring ASD.

Intussusception and rotavirus vaccine
"Intussusception - a condition as inexplicable as its name - has dogged the progress of rotavirus vaccination ever since the first vaccines were introduced".

A recent study of young infants 8-11 weeks of age in the USA admitted for intussusception before and after the introduction of the vaccine suggests a continuing association, with 20% estimated increase in intussusception cases following immunization.

Fecal calprotectin (FC) in Crohn's Disease (CD) &  postoperative recurrence
An elevated fecal calprotectin protein level is a measure of the migration of neutrophils to the intestinal mucosae occurring during bowel inflammation. In Crohn's disease FC correlates with endoscopic recurrence in adults.

A study of 51 postoperative endoscopies in 22 children aged <18 years who had undergone surgery for CD indicates that "FC is a useful surrogate marker for post-operative recurrence in pediatric CD patients" too.

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Relationship between near drowning location and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) 
A study of 1,691 near-drownings associated OHCA's seen by emergency medical services (public swimming pool 3.4% - 17.5% survival; public beaches 5.2% - 9.1% survival; unsupervised sea water 33.8% - 4.9% survival and
unsupervised open fresh water 57.6% - 3.3% survival) indicates that the odds of survival from near drowning - OHCA is significantly better in public locations with safety regulations (Pediatricians should ensure that parents are aware of the particular dangers of unprotected pools and unsupervised swimming. Ed).

Pediatric non-fracture acute compartment syndrome (NFACS); a review of 39 cases
"Compartment syndrome occurs when excessive pressure builds up inside an enclosed space in the body"; usually resulting from bleeding or swelling after an injury. In the extremities it is most frequently associated with a bone fracture.

A retrospective chart review study of 39 children (mean age 11.7 years) who suffered a NFAC indicates that; the leg is the most commonly involved limb (74%) and average time from symptom to diagnosis is 48 hours. Etiology includes; vascular causes (28%); trauma (26%); post-operative (21%); exertion (15%); and infection (10%).

Clinical presentations include:

1.     Pain (85%)
2.     Swelling (72%)
3.     Paresthesia (33%)
4.     Motor deficit (31%)
5.     Poor perfusion (28%)

"NFAC's in children is associated with a delay in diagnosis and a high rate of myonecrosis".

Video Feature  
 Compartment Syndrome
Compartment Syndrome
Effect of bilingual exposure on executive function (EF) skills in preterm and full term preschoolers

"Executive functions are a set of cognitive processes which include attentional and inhibitory control, working memory and cognitive flexibility as well as reasoning, problem solving and planning". They are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior.
A study of 82 preterm and 79 full-term infants investigated the relationship between monolingual or bilingual language
exposure & executive functioning at 3-5 years of age.

Poor executive function skills are associated with preterm birth; bilingual exposure confers "neither an advantage nor disadvantage" in infants preterm or full term at preschool age.

Early life antibiotic exposure and weight development in children
A study of anthropometric outcomes (age and sex - standardized body mas index, weight and height Z- scores and overweight) measured at 7 time points during the first 10 years of life indicates that after adjusting for confounding factors that there is an association between children exposed to one or more course of antibiotics (especially beta-lactams) in the first six months of life and obesity and increased height (the gut microbiome appears ever more important. Ed).

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