The Newsletter of the North Carolina Historic Preservation Office
Cross Creek Cemetery Number One, established in 1785, is the oldest public cemetery in Fayetteville and the burial place of many early settlers and locally significant persons of the city. It is also significant in the area of funerary sculpture as one of the most important collections of nineteenth-century grave stones in North Carolina.
Flooding in Rocky Mount, NC caused by Hurricane Matthew. Photo Courtesy of the Wall Street Journal.
The horrendous scenes of the damage visited on our state last week by Hurricane Matthew are fresh in our mind, and for many of our neighbors continue to be part of daily reality and will be for some time. You may be pleasantly surprised to learn that historic preservation is an element of disaster recovery, and that our office is already working closely with our state and federal partners at the North Carolina Emergency Management Agency (NC EMA) and Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to help account for damage to historic properties and institutions.
Additionally, homeowners, renters and business owners in Beaufort, Bertie, Bladen, Columbus, Cumberland, Dare, Duplin, Edgecombe, Gates, Greene, Harnett, Hoke, Hyde, Johnston, Jones, Lenoir, Nash, Pender, Pitt, Robeson, Sampson, Wayne and Wilson counties are urged to register with the Federal Emergency Management Agency, as they may be eligible for disaster assistance. To access more information, visit or share this link: https://www.fema.gov/disaster/4285.
Our regional preservation and restoration specialists have been reaching out to our local constituents to check on community needs and already are working closely with local elected officials and planners, providing technical assistance on issues such as best practices to dry out water-damaged historic buildings. Reid Thomas, Restoration Specialist for northeastern North Carolina, is a member of our agency's Cultural Resources Emergency Support Team (CREST) and recently spent time in Windsor, where a prior storm in September caused widespread flooding in their National Register Historic District and brought four feet of water into the Craftsman & Farmer's Museum downtown. That museum's collection of antique farming implements and tools were submerged under water and in need of care and cleaning, and CREST members were able to clean and restore damaged artifacts. (More info and pics here: https://www.ncdcr.gov/press-release/flood-damaged-artifacts-windsor-receive-preservation-help-specialized-natural-and)
In times like this, our historic places become ever more precious, and we cling to them as symbols of continuity during these days of stressful uncertainty for many North Carolinians. Our office will also be continuing its quiet work with our colleagues in the hazard mitigation section of NC EMA to help develop ways to make our historic communities more resilient in the face of natural disasters, particularly flooding.
Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, Role of Section 106 in Disaster Response, Frequently Asked QuestionsAdvisory Council on Historic Preservation, Role of Section 106 in Disaster Response, Frequently Asked Questions. http://www.achp.gov/sec106_disaster-responseFAQ.html
Heritage and Resilience: Issues and Opportunities for Reducing Disaster Risks, 2013. http://bit.ly/2dGzFlw
The Cleveland County Training School is locally significant under Criterion A for Education and African American Ethnic history and Criterion C for Architecture. The red brick school comprises four different interconnected parts: a 1935 wing that once was attached to the 1927 Rosenwald school (not extant), a 1951 modernist classroom and cafeteria building, which replaced the Rosenwald school, a 1951 Auditorium, and a 1960 gymnasium. The 1951 buildings were designed by Shelby architecture firm, V.W. Breeze and Associates, while the 1960s gymnasium was designed by Van Wageningen and Cothran, also of Shelby. The school offered academic and vocational courses to first through twelfth-grade students, became known as Cleveland Training School around 1949 and operated as such until the Shelby school system's 1967 integration. [Note: The school suffered extensive fire damage on September 15, 2016.]
The 1798 Philip and Johanna Hoehns (Hanes) House is one of the most architecturally significant dwellings in Forsyth County of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Hoehns, a farmer and distiller, became a well-to-do and respected man in the Moravian community. Built near the economic pinnacle of his life, the house was a testament to his wealth, status, and sophistication. The rural two-story masonry dwelling with refined Flemish-bond brickwork with decorative treatments is notably large and features a distinctive three-room plan. Its appearance and structure have more in common with substantial Moravian brick buildings being erected at the time in Salem than the more common log and timber frame houses of the period. The exterior brickwork is noteworthy, in particular the end gables with brick laid in a chevron pattern and the arched window openings with painted orange and black detailing.
John Chavis Memorial Park in Raleigh is historically important as a Works Progress Administration-funded municipal park developed in 1937 as a "separate but equal" recreational facility for African Americans. The 1937 park exemplifies the naturalistic landscape design movement of the early twentieth century associated with the development of the National Park Service. The twenty-six-acre park features distinctive stonework bridges and an amphitheater and rustic log picnic shelters. A ca. 1916 Allan Herschell carousel with painted decoration and thirty-six hand-carved horses has been preserved at the park.
Mill Neck School
Mill Neck School, Como Vicinity, Hertford County, listed 1/5/2016, prepared by P. Sandbeck
Mill Neck School is significant for its association with African American education in northern Hertford County from 1927 until 1959. This school was one of ten public schools in the county financed and constructed with the assistance of the Rosenwald Fund, established when philanthropist Julius Rosenwald and educator Booker T. Washington formed a partnership that led to the construction of these schools for African American children throughout the South. Mill Neck School served all African American students within the Maneys Neck Township communities of Mill Neck, Como, and Riddicksville, which were close to the Chowan River and the Virginia border and remote from the rest of the county. The period of significance begins in 1927, the year Mill Neck School's construction was completed, and ends in 1959 when the building ceased its function as a school after its students were transferred to "consolidated," more modern, African American schools in Hertford County.
The Dr. Neil and Nancy Elizabeth Culbreth House was built ca. 1874 by Whiteville merchant Thomas S. Memory for his daughter Nancy Elizabeth and her husband Dr. Neil Culbreth. The prominent house is architecturally important for the melding of Italianate and classical design, most notably its round-arched windows and monumental Greek Revival style portico with a full-width suspended balcony. The portico design is also unusual because the four columns rest on brick piers in front of the porch floor.
Clark-Miller Grist Mill, before and after rehabilitation
Ashe County, Lansing, Clark-Miller Grist Mill
The ca. 1910Clark-Miller Grist Mill is one of only four grist mills known to survive in Ashe County. This highly intact three-story building, complete with milling equipment, was converted into a vacation rental residence 2013-2015. The project was spurred by the use of the federal and state income-producing historic tax credits with a private investment rehabilitation cost of $340,000.
Burtner Building, before and after rehabilitation
Guilford County, Greensboro, Burtner Building
The ca. 1900 three-story commercial building in the Downtown Greensboro Historic District was rehabilitated in 2014 for a restaurant on the first floor with four market-rate apartments on the upper floors. This project was spurred by the use of the federal and state income-producing historic tax credits with a private investment rehabilitation cost of $767,000.
109 Cabarrus Avenue, before and after rehabilitation
Iredell County, Mooresville, 109 Cabarrus Avenue
This ca. 1910 mill house in the Mooresville Mill Village Historic District was rehabilitated in 2015 for use as a single-family rental residence. This project was spurred by the use of the federal income-producing historic tax credits with a private investment rehabilitation cost of $56,000.
Trenton Masonic Building, before and after rehabilitation
Jones County, Trenton, Trenton Masonic Building
The 1917 Trenton Masonic Building in the Trenton Historic District stands as one of the tallest in town, and it survived the 1941 fire that destroyed many buildings in the district. The current owner purchased and rehabilitated the exterior and first floor as a pharmacy in 2014. This project, the first income-producing historic tax credit project in Jones County, was spurred by the use of the federal and state tax credits with a private investment rehabilitation cost of $284,000.
Sanford Buggy Company, before and after rehabilitation
Lee County, Sanford, Sanford Buggy Company
The Sanford Buggy Company was formed and constructed in 1907, but had been converted into an automobile showroom and garage by 1924. The Sanford Furniture Company acquired the building in 1940 and added the fourth floor in 1944. Progressive Development Company in Sanford has redeveloped the four-story industrial building into state-of-the-art offices for the City of Sanford. This 2001-2015 project in the Downtown Sanford Historic District was spurred by the use of the federal historic and state mill income-producing historic tax credits with a total investment of $4.68 million.
Mecklenburg Mill, before and after rehabilitation
Mecklenburg County, Charlotte, Mecklenburg Mill
The rehabilitation of the 1903-1911 Mecklenburg Mill in the North Charlotte Historic District has returned a vacant and severely deteriorated mill building back into active use as an affordable housing community with 48 apartments and amenities. The 2013-2014 rehabilitation of the Mecklenburg Mill, and eventually the adjacent Johnston Mill, will have a major impact on the neighborhood. This project was spurred by the use of the federal historic and state mill income-producing tax credits with a private investment rehabilitation cost of $10.18 million.
Bell and Harris-Maxwell Brothers Furniture Store, before and after rehabilitation
Cabarrus County, Concord, Bell and Harris-Maxwell Brothers Furniture Store
This ca. 1921 three-story former furniture store in the Union Street North-Cabarrus Avenue Commercial Historic District was rehabilitated 2014-2015 into 26 market-rate apartments with amenities. This project placed a vacant and deteriorating building back into active use and was spurred by the use of the federal and state income-producing historic tax credits with a private investment rehabilitation cost of $2.53 million.
Speas Vinegar Company, before and after rehabilitation
Mecklenburg County, Charlotte, Speas Vinegar Company
The Speas Vinegar Company was constructed in 1939 and provided operations for distilled white and apple cider vinegar brewing, bottling, and distribution until 1994. It was one of only a few Charlotte businesses that prepared or packaged food products. NoDa Brewing Company purchased and rehabilitated the facility in 2015 for use as a brewery, brew pub, and taproom. This project was spurred by the use of the federal income-producing historic tax credits with a private investment rehabilitation cost of $2.58 million.
Bernhardt Hardware Company Building, before and after rehabilitation
Rowan County, Salisbury, Bernhardt Hardware Company Building
This ca. 1900 three-bay commercial building in the Salisbury Historic District was rehabilitated 2014-2015 for two retail spaces and a café on the first floor with six market-rate apartments at the rear and the upper floor. This project placed an underutilized building back into active use and was spurred by the use of the federal and state income-producing historic tax credits with a private investment rehabilitation cost of $1.44 million.
Holland Brothers Furniture Building, before and after rehabilitation
Durham County, Durham, Holland Brothers Furniture Building
The ca. 1914 four-story former furniture retail building in the Downtown Durham Historic Districtwas rehabilitated in 2015 for use as retail space and offices for the new Google Fiber network in Durham. This project was spurred by the use of the federal historic and state mill income-producing historic tax credits with a private investment rehabilitation cost of $4.14 million.
Resilient and Maintenance-Friendly Lime Coatings
Have you experienced water seepage around a chimney or other areas prone to leaks in an older home during severe weather events? Have you ever had to re-paint an entire room due to water staining and peeling paint caused by a leak - more than once? Substantial rainfall during Hurricane Matthew caused the water staining to the plaster wall above the mantle in this 19th-century farmhouse (fig. 1.). For just a few dollars in materials and about an hour of effort, the homeowner repaired the damage without having to repaint the entire room - and a perfect match at that (fig. 2.).
Plaster walls and the ceiling in this room were coated with a commercially-available lime paint about a decade ago. Lime coatings do not yellow and natural pigments in the coating (if using a color) hold their color. Lime coatings also resist mold growth with the pH of the lime.
The touch-up repair was pretty simple and included the following steps: 1) wiping down the damaged area with a damp sponge and allowing it to dry; 2) covering surrounding woodwork and flooring with a cloth to catch any drips from the lime paint; 3) mixing -up the lime paint power with water to a milk-like consistency; 4) brushing on the first coat over the stained areas and allowing it to dry overnight; 5) brushing on a second coat and allowing it to dry overnight; and 6) touching-up a few spots if needed with a third coat.
For more about traditional lime paint and contemporary use, click here.
Congratulations to Claudia Brown, 2016 Robert E. Stipe Professional Award Winner
Claudia Brown, our Survey & National Register Branch Supervisor and Architectural Survey Coordinator, is winner of the 2016 Robert E. Stipe Professional Award, which was announced at this year's Preservation North Carolina Annual Conference in Greensboro. The Robert E. Stipe Professional Award is the highest honor presented to working professionals who demonstrate an outstanding commitment to preservation as part of their job responsibilities. Claudia was recognized for nearly four decades of dedicated service to North Carolina as an architectural historian, author, administrator, educator, and historic preservation advocate. The complete award citation is posted here. Congratulations to Claudia and all of this year's award winners!
National Park Service Report Highlights $9.4 Billion in Private Investment in Historic Preservation Across America
Historic Hill Building in Durham. Photo courtesy of http://www.nps.org.
In the "Annual Report on the Economic Impact of the Federal Historic Tax Credit for FY 2015," the National Park Service announced that $9.4 billion in private investment was spent on the rehabilitation of historic buildings in 2015. National Park Service Director Jonathan B. Jarvis explains, "As we celebrate the 100th anniversary of the National Park Service and the 50th anniversary of the National Historic Preservation Act, historic preservation tax incentives will continue to be one of the most effective means of encouraging investments in historic preservation, and revitalization of communities across the country." The press release and the full report feature the historic Hill Building in Durham.
11 Most Endangered Historic Places 2016 List Announced
MilWaukee's Mitchell Park Domes. Photo courtesy of http.//savingplaces.org.
The National Trust for Historic Preservation has announced the 2016 List of 11 Most Endangered Historic Places. Click here to find out which places made the list.
Want to Know More About Asbestos and Asbestos-Cement Siding and Roofing?
Paul Fomberg, Senior Restoration Specialist, has compiled information on asbestos and asbestos-cement roofing and siding touching on topics including a brief history, regulation, and maintenance of asbestos products. Read more here.
Sixteenth-Century Native American Town and Spanish Fort near Morganton
Students and teachers work to uncover remnants of a Native American town
and 16th century Spanish fort on site near Morganton. Photo courtesy of WLOS.
Students and professors from Warren Wilson College are working at an archaeological site near Morganton, NC, to uncover a sixteenth-century Native American town and Spanish fort. The Berry site, named for the current land owners, was once Joara, one of the largest Native American towns in western North Carolina. Seeking a route to Mexico, Spanish soldiers arrived at Joara in 1567 and established Fort San Juan. While the Native Americans initially welcomed the Spanish, their sentiments were not reciprocated, and the Native Americans rebelled, destroying the fort. According to Professor David Moore, "This is the most intact 16
th-century colonial fort in the US." Read the full story
The congregation at the Saints Peter and Paul Russian Orthodox and Greek Catholic Church. Photo courtesy of Our State.
Built in 1932, the Saints Peter and Paul Russian Orthodox and Greek Catholic Church in St. Helena, Pender County, NC, is the oldest Russian Orthodox Church in North Carolina. It was constructed to serve Ukrainian and Russian families, brought to the area by a Wilmington developer with a vision of creating a European-style farm community. Instead of a steeple, the modest three-room brick church is distinguished by the gold dome topped with a triple-barred cross that is associated with ByzantineChurches. The church continues to hold services every Sunday with a dedicated congregation of three, without the presence of a priest. Read more at this link.
Futuro House in Frisco, NC. Photo courtesy of Atlas Obscura.
The Futuro House, a concept designed by Finnish architect Matti Suuronen in 1968, was a space-age home shaped like the Hollywood idea of a flying saucer. The plastic, prefabricated homes were built to work for any climate or terrain, and while they enjoyed a brief moment popularity, popping up all around the world, only about 100 were ever constructed. Approximately 60 remain, and while some have been preserved, several have fallen victim to vandalism and deterioration by neglect. North Carolina is lucky enough to have two of these retro gems, one in Frisco and one near Chapel Hill. Read more.
Second Lincoln County Rosenwald School on Tap for Preservation
Mount Vernon School. Photo courtesy of Lincoln Times-News.
A former Rosenwald School, Mount Vernon School in Iron Station, NC, will be rehabilitated for use as a multi-purpose meeting place for the Mount Vernon Baptist Church. According to NC HPO's Claudia Brown, the building has been very altered, but the changes can be reversed. Luckily much of the historic fabric remains under newer building materials, and it can likely be repaired and replaced as needed. The church group intends to keep as much of the original material as possible. Read more about the former school and the church group's plans here.
When Bulldozers Roamed the Earth
Bulldozers were used on the front lines during World War II. Photo courtesy of National Archives USA.
The bulldozer has long been the adversary of the historic preservation movement. The 1966 National Historic Preservation Act helped to curb demolition of historic resources by federally funded construction projects. In her new book, Bulldozer: Demolition and Clearance of the Postwar Landscape, author Francesca Russello Ammon explores how the bulldozer shaped the development in post-World War II United States. It went from a weapon, vital to the U.S. Military's war efforts, to a tool utilized by planners in the construction of suburbia and the interstate highway system. Read the full article here.
Washington D.C.'s Pershing Park Determined Eligible for National Register Listing
Pershing Park in Washington, D.C Photo courtesy of The Cultural Landscape Foundation.
M. Paul Friedberg's Modernist Pershing Park in Washington, DC, is the proposed site for a new World War I Memorial. During the Section 106 review process, the park was been determined eligible for National Register Listing. Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act requires that properties and districts listed in or eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places be considered in the planning of federal undertakings and an attempt be made to eliminate or mitigate potential adverse effect on these resources. While the park has been determined eligible, all parties involved have yet to come to a favorable conclusion for the proposed Memorial on the site. NC HPO's Environmental Review Specialist Amber Kidd says, "The article provides a real-world example of federal agencies and other interested parties coming together under the Section 106 mandate to enter into consultation to discuss ways to avoid, mitigate, or minimize an adverse effect to a historic property. The fact that the property is a park serves as a good reminder to folks that preservation is not limited to the buildings." Click hereto read more.
-- San Jose's Winchester Mystery House is well known for its maze of hallways, staircases to nowhere, and eccentric original owner, Sarah Winchester. A room boarded up since the 1920s has recently been discovered. Read more here.
--Find out how libraries are helping to collect and preserve the history of rural communities through Historypin, a website that allows people to share photos and stories,telling the histories of their local communities. Check it out!
lanning on purchasing a historic home? Here's what to look for in your inspection before you buy.
--Read about the excavation and restoration of a 2,200-year-old theatre in the ancient City of Laodicea, Turkey.
October 30-November 2 Association for Preservation Technology (APT) Conference, "Preserving Heritage with Tomorrow's Technology," San Antonio, TX. Details about the conference and registration information can be found on this website.
November 7 North Carolina Preservation Consortium Annual Conference, "Unbroken Threads Preserving our Textile Heritage," North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC. For more information, click here.
November 18 The North Carolina Literary and History Association and the North Carolina Historical Society are holding a combined annual meeting. For more information and to register, click here.
March 14-16, 2017 NC Main Street Conference: Main Street - What's Your Strategy, Shelby, NC. The state's largest downtown revitalization event will offer learning sessions, tours, networking, and an opportunity to experience downtown Shelby. For more information, visit http://www.ncmainstreetcenter.com/.
National Trust offers grants to Main Street towns through its Historic Properties Redevelopment Program. Click here to learn more.
National Council on Public History Accepting Award Nominations The National Council on Public History offers a variety of awards including outstanding project, new professional, consulting excellence, and a book award. Deadlines are November 1, and December 1. More information and submission deadlines are available at http://ncph.org/cms/awards/. Questions? 317-274-2716 or email@example.com.
Please send any comments or suggestions to Hannah Beckman at firstname.lastname@example.org. Please forward this newsletter to others who might be interested in the information. Archived issues are online at http://www.hpo.ncdcr.gov/newsletter/newsletter.htm.
The activity that is the subject of this publication has been financed in part with federal funds from the National Park Service (NPS), U.S. Department of the Interior, and administered by the NC HPO. However, the contents and opinions do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of NPS or NC HPO. This program receives federal financial assistance for identification and protection of historic properties. Under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and the Age Discrimination Act of 1975, as amended, the U. S. Department of the Interior prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, disability or age in its federally assisted programs. If you believe you have been discriminated against in any program, activity, or facility as described above, or if you desire further information please write to: Office of Equal Opportunity, National Park Service, 1849 C Street, N.W., Washington DC 20240.
North Carolina State Historic Preservation Office
Division of Historical Resources | Office of Archives and History
North Carolina Department of Natural and Cultural Resources