High School Awards Entry Deadline March 11
Northern California, Reno and Hawaii high school students can enter the NATAS
Regional Student Television Awards for Excellence
Entries produced from March 2015 to February 2016 are eligible. Categories include News, Sports, Public Affairs, Arts and Entertainment as well as crafts.
If you know friends who have high school students taking media classes please tell them about the contest. Direct them to our Chapter website, emmysf.tv, and click the Student tab.
Gold & Silver Circle
Nomination Deadline Approaching -- April 15
The nomination deadline is approaching for the
Gold & Silver Circle Class of 2016. Nominations will be accepted until Friday, April 15.
The Silver Circle is not an award -- it is a society of honor. To be eligible for membership,
individuals must have been actively engaged in television broadcasting for 25 years or more (with
at least half of those years in the Chapter region), made a significant contribution to their local
television markets and distinguished themselves within the industry and the community. Silver
inductees are elected by current members of the Silver Circle.
The Gold Circle honors individuals who have been actively engaged in television broadcasting for
50 years or more
(with at least half of those years in the chapter region) and who have fulfilled the
same criteria as
nominees. Gold Circle inductees are elected by the Board of Governors of The San Francisco/Northern California Chapter of The National Academy of Television Arts & Sciences.
Neither the candidate nor the nominator need be a member of NATAS. Yes, you can even nominate yourself.
The induction luncheon will be held in October.
Lights! 70 Cameras! Super Bowl 50!
Tech Advances, Alternative Ways to View
By Patty Zubov
Chapter Marketing Chairperson
CBS network reported that 167 million viewers watched all or part of Super Bowl 50 on Sunday, February 7, played at Levi's Stadium in Santa Clara. That makes it the most watched broadcast in TV history on an all-or-part basis.
Nielsen estimates that the game, in which the Denver Broncos beat the Carolina Panthers 24-10, had an average of 111.9 million TV viewers - ranking it the third most watched Super Bowl. They estimate an average of 115.5 million people were tuned in to watch the halftime show performed by Coldplay, Beyoncé and Bruno Mars. However, Nielsen's totals don't include out-of-home viewing, such as watching at bars and restaurants.. Internet streaming is not counted either - CBS made the game available on tablets, computers and streaming boxes like Apple TV.
There were 70 cameras to capture the game, and Super Bowl 50 introduced a few creative camera twists and technological advances. One twist was "EyeVision 360" where CBS provided viewers a 360° perspective in high resolution. The system was comprised of 36 cameras strung around the upper deck of Levi's Stadium. It could freeze a moment - for example when the ball crosses the plain of the goal line - then revolve around the scene, and continue to show the play.
For the first time ever in a Super Bowl, CBS incorporated "Pylon Cameras" - eight custom-molded orange pylons on the goal lines and sidelines on each side of the field, housing 16 high-resolution, high-definition cameras. The pylons also had microphones embedded in them to enhance the sound of the game.
CBS's Super Bowl Broadcast by the numbers:
1 - CBS Sports Remote Production / Post Production Center, including 11 fully loaded Avid suites, 1 V.O. booth and 10 graphics stations.
1 - Camera placed on the Needle at California's Great America Amusement Park in Santa Clara that was focused on Levi's Stadium.
3 - Aerial camera systems.
4 - Sets used on Super Bowl Sunday - three at Levi's Stadium in Santa Clara and one in San Francisco.
4 - Super Bowls called by play-by-play announcer Jim Nantz.
8 - Super Bowls James Brown has hosted studio coverage.
8 - Super Bowls Phil Simms has served as an analyst - the second most ever behind John Madden (11).
- CBS Sports announcers making their Super Bowl broadcast debut (Tony Gonzalez, Bart Scott, Amy Trask, Mike Carey, Trent Green, Ian Eagle, Evan Washburn, Allie LaForce and Jay Feely).
12 - Production Trucks utilized for Super Bowl game and pre-game broadcasts.
16 - Camera angles provided by the eight "Pylon Cameras," for the first time in a Super Bowl.
18 - Number of CBS Sports on-air announcers part of Super Bowl Sunday pre-game and game coverage.
19 - Super Bowls televised by CBS, the most by any network.
70 - Game Cameras.
100+ - Overall cameras used for game and pre-game broadcast.
256 - Microphones used for the Super Bowl broadcast.
360 - Number of degrees CBS Sports' "EyeVision 360" replay system showed viewers on key plays during Super Bowl 50.
550 - CBS Sports personnel in the Bay Area covering the game, pregame and CBS Sports Network shows.
65,000 - Square footage for CBS Super Bowl compound.
1.1 million - Communication points in the compound's intercom system.
NATAS Chapter Members Invited
to Sacramento Preview Screening
Joyce Mitchell of the Board of Governors of The San Francisco/Northern California Chapter of The National Academy of Television Arts & Sciences invites NATAS members and friends to a preview screening of her documentary,
The Journey Ahead, on Monday, March 14, at the KVIE studios in Sacramento. Reception is at 5:30 p.m. Screening is at 6 p.m. A discussion will follow.
These days, it's a celebration in many ways for Blanca Garza.
In January, Garza - one of the most recognizable television news anchors in the Bay Area - celebrated her 15th anniversary with Telemundo's KSTS in San Jose.
She says it's hard to believe how fast 15 years have gone by.
Garza is a 23-year veteran of television and radio news. Born and raised in the town of Dinuba, near Fresno, her family later moved to Monterrey, Mexico. The oldest of three children (she has a brother and sister), she and her family returned to the United States when she was 18.
Returning to California, her life changed almost immediately with the launch of her career in broadcasting.
Today, she is one of the most popular news anchors in the Bay Area for either a Spanish-language or English-language television station.
And beginning this month, more exciting times await Garza. She is switching from being the longtime main co-anchor of KSTS' evening newscast, Noticiero 48, to become senior anchor and associate producer of the station's morning newscasts at 6 and 10 a.m. That, after a 15-year run working the evening anchor desk.
"I don't think I ever saw myself as someone who wanted to be in front of a camera," she says. But, it was the fact that she didn't like the disparity between the rich, the middle class and the poor. "I couldn't understand it. I didn't like that. I always hung out with everyone when I was growing up. When I was 10, 11, 12 and 13, I would take pictures and anything that bothered me about society, I would try to figure out what I could do about it."
Originally, Garza wanted to have a career in public relations.
One of her college professors told her one day that "I think you got it messed up," Garza admits. The professor told her that she should be in television news, not public relations.
"I always want to bring up what's wrong with our society, and how I could fix it. Through my work, I hope I'm always doing that," she says.
Garza got her start in broadcasting at the age of 18, when she was hired by a Spanish-language Christian radio station in Camarillo, between Santa Barbara and Ventura. Her uncle, who was a Christian pastor at the time, had learned that the station was looking for someone. He had spoken with the station's program director about her.
"My uncle thought I'd be perfect for it," she says. "I spoke perfect Spanish and I'm Christian." So, Garza contacted the station to express her interest, and was hired. Her first shift there: the 6 to 10 a.m. time slot.
"I used to get up at 4 in the morning to get up and open up the station by myself, and it was scary," Garza says. "But, this wasn't about me. It was all about doing something for my family. Wanting to help my family. Even though I didn't think I could do it, I did it, because it was for my family. It was my first paying job."
It was her only job in radio.
"I liked radio, but I wanted to give television a try. I love television," Garza says.
One day, she asked the station's receptionist if she knew of any television stations in the area. Garza credits the receptionist with helping her to find a Spanish-language TV station, in Oxnard.
Garza went to the station immediately to inquire about work there. She thought she'd become a production assistant. But then, one of the station managers there who noticed her asked her if she'd ever been in front of a television camera before. She said no, but he suggested to her that she be on camera since her Spanish was so perfect. She was hired to read the news.
"It was a small station," Garza says. "We did everything. We didn't even have TelePrompTers, so I did my best every day to memorize my scripts to read on air.
As fate would have it, the news director for the Univision television station in Los Angeles visited the Oxnard station one day and was impressed by Garza's work. He encouraged her to send an audition tape to him. She was hired immediately. After a year and a half at the Oxnard station - she was the youngest employee at the station at the time - she packed up and headed to Los Angeles to begin a new chapter in her career. At the tender age of 19.
The year was 1995. She spent the next six years in Los Angeles. Garza did more entertainment news than anything else. The station promoted her to entertainment anchor during the week. She was also doing stories for national and international outlets, including for Televisa, the largest television broadcaster in Latin America. They hired her as a Los Angeles correspondent, and she covered Hollywood for the network, including the major awards shows like the Academy Awards.
After six years covering Hollywood, Garza knew she wanted more in her career. She wanted to move from covering the stars to helping people through her work in television.
In late 2000, Garza was contacted by KSTS and was hired to be an anchor. She joined the station in January 2001.
"I love Los Angeles, and I soon realized that I would love the Bay Area as well.
"I'm amazed that 15 years have gone by so fast," Garza says. "It's like everything has happened so fast like in the blink of an eye."
How has television changed for Garza during her career?
"It's the technology," she says. "How we gather news today compared to 20 years ago has changed a lot. And, with the addition of social media, it has really changed."
Garza says the most favorite aspect of her job is the ability to help people.
"I love to help people," she says. "I think I'm approachable, and I try to give people time to tell me whatever it is they may be experiencing in their lives."
Everyone has a story to tell, Garza adds. "We all have stories. We all have a good story to tell. I receive inspiration in my life in many ways, from the people in my life, and anyone I meet."
Anchor Changes at KSTS
Blanca Garza to Mornings; Lorena Dominguez to Nights
By Kevin Wing
Chapter Vice President, San Francisco
KSTS is shuffling its morning and evening anchors.
The San Jose-based Telemundo station has announced that
, the longtime anchor of the weekday evening
, has been named senior anchor and associate producer of the station's morning newscasts. Starting March 28, Garza will co-anchor the station's morning program, Noticiero Telemundo 48 Primera Edicion, at 6 a.m., with
Juan Francisco Ramirez
and weather anchor
. Garza will also join them for Noticiero Telemundo 48 at 10 a.m.
, who has been anchoring the morning show, will move to evenings to co-anchor Noticiero Telemundo 48 with
, weather anchor
Gabriella Dellan and sports anchor
at 5:30, 6 and 11 p.m.
Garza celebrated her 15th anniversary with KSTS in January.
"Blanca has helped co-anchor our evening newscasts for many years and I am confident that her distinguished sense of gravitas will help our morning news team deliver the news and information our viewers need before they head out the door," says Freddy Oldenburg, KSTS vice president of news. "Lorena has done a great job in helping launch our morning newscasts and has a dynamic personality that complements our evening team and I can't wait for our Bay Area viewers to see her in the new time period."
KSTS Launches New Weekly Sports Show
By Kevin Wing
Chapter Vice President, San Francisco
KSTS, the Telemundo station in San Jose, has begun airing a new weekly half-hour sports show. The show,
Noticiero Telemundo 48: Edicion Deportiva
, debuted Feb. 27.
KSTS sports anchor
and news anchor Juan Francisco Ramirez co-host the program.
"The Bay Area is one of the most dynamic sports markets in the country and we are committed to providing our Spanish-speaking viewers the best sports content and coverage possible," says
, president and general manager of KSTS and its sister station, KNTV NBC Bay Area. "We look forward to introducing this new show to our viewers with the very best Bay Area sports news and analysis."
Aloha, San Francisco!
KITV Anchor Kenny Choi Joins KPIX morning newscast
, who has anchored the news at KITV in Honolulu since 2010, is moving to San Francisco to co-anchor the weekday morning newscasts at KPIX.
Choi will replace
"My colleagues at KITV and the many viewers I have come to know in our community have truly made my time here in Hawaii special," said Choi. "
My family and I are thrilled for this new opportunity in San Francisco."
Choi joined KITV in 2010, when he joined the station's morning newscast. Recently, he has been anchoring the station's 10 p.m. newscast with
Yunji de Nies.
journalism career got a jump start during his undergraduate years at UCLA. That's when Choi worked for the Daily Bruin newspaper and for The Bruin News, the local news station for the UCLA community.
Before arriving in Hawaii, Choi worked in New York for Sportsnet New York as an anchor and reporter. Prior to that he worked at Fox23 News in Tulsa and KVEW-TV in Kennewick, Washington.
On the Move
Nelson Wong, production manager, director and associate director at KTVU in Oakland, retired from the station at the end of February after 47 years.
Scott Rates, news reporter at KRON in San Francisco, joins KRCR in Redding as assistant news director.
Janice Gin, who has held several management positions, including as associate news director, throughout her career in the Bay Area -- including tenures at KTVU in Oakland and KGO-TV in San Francisco -- has been promoted to assistant news director at KRON in San Francisco.
Brenda Cardon joins KPIX in San Francisco as a weekend evening producer. She leaves WJLA-TV in Washington, D.C.
Arial Schroeder joins KPIX in San Francisco as a weekend morning producer. He leaves WISN in Milwaukee.
Colin Resch joins KNTV in San Jose as a sports reporter. He leaves KGO-TV in San Francisco, where he served as a sports anchor, reporter and producer.
Jaxon Van Derbeken joins KNTV in San Jose as a reporter. He leaves the San Francisco Chronicle, where his work as a reporter focused on investigative and public safety reports.
Chris Chmura joins KNTV in San Jose as a consumer investigator. He leaves WTVT in Tampa, where he worked for more than 10 years.
Ashley Ritchie, news anchor at KMPH in Fresno, will return to the station from maternity leave as a special projects reporter.
Have a new job? Got a promotion? Retiring? We'd like to know about it. Please write to
On the Move
The Health Reporter
How "Old" Do You Sound?
In the world of broadcasting, your voice is one of your most valuable assets. But as with everything else, your voice ages too, and most people don't think about taking care of their "voice muscles" like they do their biceps. Signs of aging include more than receding hairlines and gums, wrinkles, painful joints, and clogged arteries. Have you ever talked to someone on the phone and determined the person is old just by the sound of his/her voice? You've likely heard an older person speak with that
classic gravely, weak. raspy, wavering, hoarse, and/or breathless voice. With that said, how old do YOU sound?
Why Your Voice Makes You Sound Old
Over 30% of people over age 65 have voice problems. As you age, your larynx (a.k.a. voice box) changes. The following 12 reasons may be causing your voice to become hoarse and weak and thus, sound old:
- Your vocal cords are less elastic (just like aging skin and muscles) and are unable to work in the same way as when you were young. Your vocal cords move and vibrate to make sounds. When the surrounding muscles move, your vocal cords either tighten or loosen. To make higher sounds, your cords tighten.
- Your vocal cords and muscles in the larynx wear out and become more thin. As a result, your voice may sound higher.
- Thickened mucous increases the amount of mass that needs to vibrate and results in a lower pitched voice. This increase is thought to be due to a decrease in hormones that affect the mucous membranes of your vocal cords.
- Acid reflux can cause harshness, sore throat, cough.
- Weak abdominals - In order to form a sound, your abs and rib cage squeeze your lungs which make you exhale air.
- Decreased lung capacity - By the time you're 80, you may have 50% less volume compared to when you were 20.
- Rheumatoid arthritis - This condition can lead to hoarseness because your vocal cords cannot move well. The inflammation limits the ability of the joint near your windpipe (cricoarytenoid joint) to move.
- Messages from your brain to the voice box become inefficient and nerve endings die.
- Decrease in blood supply and number of lubricating glands which cause the vocal cords to dry out.
- Change in your tongue, lips and teeth making it more difficult to form words. As a result, your voice becomes thinner and wavers.
- Parkinson's disease
How to Keep Your Voice Younger Longer
Here are some quick fixes to slow and minimize the aging of your voice.
- Stand and sit up straight! Poor posture can prevent deep breathing and adequate air flow, so your vocal cords will have to work harder to produce sounds.
- Exercise. When you exercise, you'll increase or at least maintain your lung capacity which will help you produce a stronger, more youthful voice. Be sure to do exercises that strengthen your postural muscles(abdominals, shoulders, neck, and back) to hold yourself upright and improve air flow.
- Try not to shout or yell. The more you strain your muscles, the weaker, more tired and inflamed they'll become. When your vocal cords 'bang' together, you can develop nodules (callous-like growths) on them. People in occupations that require a lot of talking, shouting or work in noisy environments are at high risk of damaging their voices or causing a vocal hemorrhage, which can cause permanent damage.
- Drink lots of water to keep your voice box moist. Nearby glands produce a saliva-like fluid that lubricates your vocal cords. In order to make this 'lubricant', you need to stay hydrated by sipping water every 15 minutes. Drink a total of at least 6 cups of water a day.
- Don't smoke. Tobacco can increase hoarseness.
- Sing! Singing uses your vocal muscles. The old adage, "If you don't use it, you'll lose it", applies to your voice as well. Professional singers know how to preserve their voice and keep their larynx muscles strong. Tip: If you sing in the shower, the steam will help lubricate your voice box. :)
- Stay sociable. As adults get older, they often become more socially isolated and speak less.
- Control your cough. Seek remedies if your have a bad cough as it can scar your vocal cords. Then rest your voice for a couple of days to allow your vocal cords to heal. If you have a chronic cough that lasts more than two weeks, be sure to seek medical attention to avoid permanent hoarseness.
- Limit alcohol to one serving per day (or avoid it altogether if you have acid reflux). Alcohol can inflame the mucous membranes of your throat.
- Take care of your teeth. Ever notice that the faces of people with false teeth have a more 'sunken in' appearance? That's because natural teeth are embedded in the jawbone and when you lose a tooth, the jawbone starts to atrophy (waste away). This change in face shape causes the muscles to not work as well and makes it more difficult to form sounds.
- Avoid acid reflux. Acid reflux irritates and dries out your throat which damages your voice. Don't lie down immediately after eating. Wait at least two hours after eating before going to bed and elevate your head 6-8 inches when sleeping. Avoid foods that aggravate acid reflux or irritate an inflamed lower esophagus, such as:
- Carbonated drinks (bubbles increase pressure)
- Coffee (both regular and decaffeinated)
- Caffeine (includes caffeinated soft drinks/tea)
- Chocolate (contains cocoa, fat and caffeine which are irritants)
- Fried food (high fats are associated with heartburn and reflux)
- Beer, wine and liquor (alcohol is believed to relax the valve between the esophagus and stomach leading to reflux)
- High-fat dairy products, such as cheese, butter, cream, creamed foods/soups, whole milk (high fat foods contribute to reflux)
- High-fat cuts of meat, such as beef, pork, lamb, bacon, sausage, cold cuts, chicken skin (fatty foods are harder to digest and stay longer in the stomach, thus increasing your chance of acid reflux)
- Peppermint and spearmint
- Citrus fruits and juices (grapefruit, orange, pineapple, tomato)
- Spicy or acidic foods (as tolerated)
Signs of "silent" acid reflux include:
- Throat clearing
- Croaky lower voice in the morning
- Feeling of having a lump in your throat
Surgical Voice Lifts
Just like a face lift, some Americans are undergoing a "voice lift" where fat or collagen from other body parts are injected into the vocal cords. This brings the flaps of tissue of your vocal cords closer together, so they vibrate better and produce a stronger sound.
Karen's Fit Tip:
Don't assume your voice changes are due to aging. Be sure to see your physician to rule out other medical problems that could be developing, especially if you have a smoking and drinking history.
Karen's Fit Tip: Don't assume your voice changes are due to aging. Be sure to see your physician to rule out other medical problems that could be developing, especially if you have a smoking and drinking history.
is a Clinical Exercise Physiologist specializing in cardiac rehabilitation at a San Francisco Bay Area hospital. She is a cancer survivor and the founder and creator of Get Real Food!™, a heart-healthy, cancer-protective lifestyle program. She is a former NATAS Governor and produces/hosts healthy living TV segments. Visit her website for more healthy how-to's at
"One-Woman Band".. and then some..
Video journalist or multimedia journalist -- call it what you will. That's
Kate Cagle, of KRON in San Francisco, and that's what she is, and she does a very good job of it, too. In the field, as a VJ or MMJ, she does everything to get her stories on the air.
Do You Remember?
Can you name these three members of the
If you know the answer to this month's
Do You Remember?, please write to
Last month we asked you to name this Newsroom crew.
It's KRON's Live at 5 (L to F) Evan White (SC'93), Jim Gaughran, Joe Fragola, Bob Jimenez, Mark Thompson, Euna Kwan, Dana Spurrier, Fred Bushardt, and John Gillette.
How Can National Security Be Guaranteed?
By Will Durst
Special to Off Camera
This huge brouhaha between the FBI and Apple Inc. has escalated into a Battle Royale between the righteous and the wicked. And, as often happens, both sides are claiming to be on the side of the angels. With so many good guys in attendance, it's amazing that world-wide badness is still so pervasive. But you can't blame television for everything.
The Feds want Apple to create specialized software in order to bypass the auto- erase feature of the San Bernardino terrorists' iPhone. They don't just want access to a backdoor, they want Apple to design a backdoor, construct it then hand them the only key. And snacks. They want snacks too.
It's the age-old battle between security and privacy, safety and confidentiality, minty freshness and chocolaty richness. But once breached, there's no going back. It's a slope more slippery than a caffeinated eel in a bathtub full of bacon grease. No such thing as a virgin repair kit, you know.
The FBI says they only need to do this once. Yeah, right. Federal investigators in 11 other jurisdictions have already filed motions seeking access to suspects' iPhone data. A Manhattan DA has 175 phones he wants to crack. Get ready to open a Pandora's Box of 4th amendment violations, full of venomous snakes ready to spring out and bite us in the butt. Repeatedly.
The problem is, you let one government into your back door and every other government is going to break land- speed records to stand in line to do the same and not all of them are familiar with the concept of lubricant, if you catch my drift. Besides, no global company, not even one located in Cupertino, California, can say yes to Obama and nyet to Putin. China? North Korea? Seriously?
The FBI says we need to trust them. Isn't this the same FBI that vowed for years they weren't conducting illegal surveillance on Americans until it was revealed they were? And the same FBI that offered flawed testimony in thousands of court cases resulting in prosecutions, some of which led to executions? You mean that FBI? I wouldn't trust that FBI as far as I could throw two handfuls of glue.
And the fallacy of the backdoor code remaining secure is so laughable it should be green- lighted its own sit- com on Comedy Central. The claim that nobody else would be able to get their hands on this technology is either woefully ignorant or further demonstration of an ineptitude approaching that of a Sherman tank in the upper branches of an elm tree.
The only way to guarantee security in this, the 7th year of the 2nd decade of the 21st century, is through a self- imposed sentence of solitary confinement. The term "internet privacy" is like saying "transparent cement" or "blazing snow." Last October a 16 year old kid hacked CIA Director John Brennan's personal email. Why doesn't the FBI hire him?
Sides are being chosen. Facebook's Mark Zuckerberg supports Apple while Bill Gates has come down on the side of the FBI. He would. And finally, supporting the FBI's position, the walking contradiction known as Donald Trump called for a patriotic boycott of Apple in a tweet. That he sent out on his iPhone. You can't make stuff up like this.
Will Durst is an award-winning, nationally acclaimed columnist, comedian and former ski race time starter. For sample videos and a calendar of personal appearances including his new one-man show, Elect to Laugh: 2016, premiering at the San Francisco Marsh on March 15, go to willdurst.com.
Write Us! Off Camera Wants to Hear From You!
wants to hear from you. Have a great story idea? Interested in writing a story for us? Want to tell us how we're doing? Whatever it may be, please feel free to drop us a line.
The Board of Governors
AN FRANCISCO/NORTHERN CALIFORNIA CHAPTER
THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF TELEVISION ARTS & SCIENCES
Kevin Wing*, ABC-TV Good Morning America
KMPH Fox 26
Pamela Young*, KHON 2
Vice President-Smaller Markets:
Alyssa Deitsch, KHSL/KNVN
Spalding & Company
(National Awards Chair)
(National 2nd Vice Chairperson)
KTVU Fox 2
Alternate: Kevin Wing*,
ABC-TV Good Morning America
Kent Beichley, Pac 12 Net
KDTV Univision 14
Andi Guevara, KTVN 2
KUVS Univision 19
Sean Karlin, Independent
The Big Picture
(Gold & Silver Circle Chair)
4 U Productions
Michael Moya, fotografx
KNTV NBC Bay Area
Manny Ramos Communications
KMPH FOX 26
KGMB/KHNL Hawaii News Now
KGO-TV ABC7 (Retired)
(Emmy Gala Chair)
Noemi Zeigler Sanchez, Laney College
Catchings & Associates
KTVU Fox 2
ARC Law Group
Darryl R. Compton*,
* Member of the Silver Circle
National Academy of Television Arts & Sciences
San Francisco/Northern California Chapter
Darryl Compton, Executive Director
4317 Camden Avenue
San Mateo, CA 94403-5007
Phone: 650 341-7786 or 415 777-0212
Fax: 650 372-0279
The name "Emmy®" and the graphic image of the statuette, are registered trademarks of the National Academy of Television Arts & Sciences.