If you ask most people how they control their distance, they will usually say "hit it harder or softer." This is partially true, but we need to change the way golfers think about this aspect of the game.
For example, if your club head travels a total of 24 inches, and you use the same tempo, the ball will travel about the same distance whether you use a driver or a putter. Keep in mind that a driver has a longer shaft than a putter, but we are talking about the distance the head of each club travels.
In the end, we are really talking about club head speed. The farther the club head travels, the more speed it can build up. So, the primary factor for distance control is swing length.
A good method for visualizing this is the clock system, where your hands represent the hands of a clock. Practice the clock system with a variety of clubs in order to improve your distance control.