from the Standing Joint Force Headquarters (SJFHQ) in London

7 February 2024

Janne Kuusela, Defence Policy Director at the Ministry of Defence of Finland.

Message from Janne Kuusela, Defence Policy Director at the Ministry of Defence of Finland

I am very pleased to introduce the third Joint Expeditionary Force (JEF) Newsletter by the Standing Joint Force Headquarters.

The year 2023 was very efficient for the JEF community. The JEF leaders adopted JEF’s Vision in October, and the level of various activities reached an all-time high. We demonstrated how JEF nations plan, exercise and implement JEF Joint Response Options when needed. The activation of the Response Option in December to protect critical undersea infrastructure increased our vigilance and situational awareness, and strengthened NATO’s efforts in the region. 

Russia’s war of aggression against Ukraine fundamentally changed European security environment. It soon became clear that Finland´s desire to strengthen both its own security and the stability and security in Northern Europe is best served by applying for NATO membership. Finland became NATO’s 31st Member Nation in April. Being a long-standing and close partner to NATO Finland has been able to smoothly begin integration into the Alliance. However, we still have a lot to learn and to do. The support we have received from our friends and Allies through JEF has been extremely helpful in navigating the new reality we face today. Finalising Sweden’s accession is now a high priority for all of us. 

Looking ahead, the severe security situation and the recent events underline the importance of the work we do in JEF to increase the security and stability of Northern Europe. We will do this by implementing the newly adopted Vision, continuing consultations on security and defence issues, continuing our unwavering support for Ukraine, as well as close and active cooperation on political and military levels. The Joint Response Options will form the basis for deeper cooperation and further development of the JEF. I am confident we can achieve a lot together this year as well.

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Royal Danish Navy Absalon-class frigate HDMS Esbern Snare patrols offshore wind farms south of Lolland.

Älvsborg Marine Regiment of the Swedish Amphibious Corps sail to greet the UK's HMS Richmond as she pulls into Gothenburg.

Royal Norwegian Navy Skjold-class corvette KNM Gnist (P-965) patrolling near the Nyhamna gas plant outside Molde.

FIN Navy participating in JRO activation in Baltic Sea

Finnish Navy missile Boat FNS Hanko patrols CNI with HMS Richmond in the Baltic Sea.

Crew from LVNS Virsaitis, a Latvian Vidar class coastal minelayer, deploy her towed sonar as she surveys coastal CNI.

Commander Simon Wood

Commander Simon Wood

First ever activation of a JEF Response Option in the face of a suspected attack on CNI

On 7 October 2023, the Balticconnector gas pipeline, joining Estonia and Finland, was severely damaged. Following the incident, JEF Defence Ministers agreed on 28 November to activate a JRO for the first time, coordinating warships, aircraft, multi-domain reconnaissance assets and specialist teams from all 10 JEF nations across a vast area of operations.

The Joint Expeditionary Force proved its complementarity to NATO’s initial response, under the framework of a JEF Response Option (JRO) by mounting a proportionate, co-ordinated, and sustained follow-on military activities using forces from JEF Nations.

JEF Response Options

As part of its continuing operationalisation the JEF has been developing a playbook of stand-alone, pre-planned actions (called JROs) for a range of potential situations that JEF nations may draw upon in response to a developing crisis. 

The agility of 10 participant nations prepared to act on an opt-in basis, enables them to surge activities early to prepare and shape a theatre for a wider response which could just as quickly be stood down should its deterrence effect succeed. JROs provide the initial planning considerations from which more detailed coordination can be done for a set of general scenarios. They cover activities in all warfare domains ranging from reinforcing a local logistics footprint, to deploying a maritime task force, or indeed defending underwater CNI. 

Planning challenges

Although the initial staffwork for protecting CNI had already been done and incorporated into a relevant JRO, this first real test of the concept, involving such a wide range of assets, geographical locations, contributing nations and timescales, required a great deal of coordination.

The time invested by planning teams in JRO workshops, meant force generation and coordination was done in just a few weeks by staff in the JEF’s operational headquarters in Northwood. The trawling of national headquarters for available assets, before designing a concept of operation cohering them on focused activities, resulted in a set of orders to coordinate activities under an agreed Command and Control, reporting and information sharing structure.

Commander Simon Wood was responsible for coordinating with JEF Nations to combine the force contributions into a cohesive plan with the associated JEF Coordination Orders.

“The greatest challenge we faced in the Headquarters was understanding the available assets and capabilities of our Participant Nations and what effects they wanted to achieve,” said Simon. “This required close liaison and communication between our JEF Participant Nation embedded officers and their homeland headquarters.

“Overall, I was very pleased with how the JEF Nations responded with the result that we were able to co-ordinate 21 warships and 11 aircraft, stretching from the Eastern Baltic to the Western Approaches of the UK and all the way up into the North Norwegian Sea. 

“It’s a historic first for the Joint Expeditionary Force and a real message to any adversary that we are capable and willing to work together with a common goal.”

Looking ahead 

Work is now ongoing to assess the success of the activity and identify lessons that will feed into the JRO’s refinement which will continue through a programme of multi-lateral JEF and NATO exercises over the next few years.

This proof of the JRO concept so early on in its existence shows the importance of nations planning together, sharing intelligence and pooling military resources in order to deploy quickly a credible military force whenever they sense a challenge to regional peace and security.

JEF expands to LinkedIn

The Joint Expeditionary Force has expanded its outreach by launching a LinkedIn page, to better reach JEF audiences of interest. You can read short articles about what the JEF nations are up to and how they are preparing for future events. With links to participant nations press releases, get the information you require straight to your LinkedIn App or computer. You can also scan the QR code to visit the page.

Click here to check out and follow JEF on LinkedIn

JEF participant nations Chiefs of Defence

JEF Chiefs of Defence met in Helsinki in April 2023

UK Standing Joint Force Commander and UK Chief of Joint Operations at Keflavik Airbase in Iceland, June 2023

UK Standing Joint Force Commander Maj Gen Jim Morris (left) and UK Chief of Joint Operations Lt Gen Charlie Stickland, at Keflavik Airbase in Iceland, June 2023

JEF Defence Ministers met in Amsterdam in June 2023

JEF Leaders convened in Visby on the Swedish island Gotland in November.

JRO Workshop onboard HMS Queen Elizabeth in Gothenburg in November.

JEF STRATCOM Workshop at the British Embassy in Helsinki in November.

An eventful 2023

2023 has been a busy and productive year for the JEF which undertook a range of activities focusing on regional security, with a particular emphasis on the protection of critical infrastructure and response to hybrid threats, in accordance with direction from JEF leaders. While the activation of the JRO was the most significant activity of the year and Op Firedrake the largest activity, they were a part of a broader array of initiatives and strategic developments of the framework.

Throughout the year, the JEF focused significantly on addressing security threats to critical undersea and offshore infrastructure. This was in response to growing concerns about potential activities targeting vital assets like internet cables, gas pipelines, and wind farms, especially in the context of increased Russian naval activity.

Representatives from the JEF participant nations convened in London in March to advance the framework during JEF Development Week. The JEF Chiefs of Defence met in Helsinki in April. Then the JEF Operational Headquarters deployed to Keflavik Airbase in Iceland in June, to continue the JEF journey, conducting a range of activities with representatives from all JEF participant nations, including intelligence sharing, JRO planning and participating in a Security Forum co-hosted by the Icelandic MFA and the British Embassy in Reykjavík. The JEF Operational Headquarters organised two JEF forums for academics and defence journalists, in London in July and onboard HMS Queen Elizabeth in Gothenburg in October.

The JEF defence ministers met in Amsterdam in June to discuss the situation in Ukraine and the broader security landscape in Northern Europe. This meeting underscored the JEF's commitment to supporting Ukraine against Russian aggression and highlighted the necessity of collective efforts to tackle both conventional and hybrid military threats. The ministers emphasized the importance of intelligence sharing, joint surveillance, and coordinated maritime activities as key strategies for safeguarding the region's security. This meeting also focused on strengthening cooperation among JEF participant nations and aligning their efforts with NATO for better effectiveness in threat detection and response.

Additionally, the JEF Leaders’ Summit in October 2023 in Sweden was crucial for setting the future direction of the coalition. The summit led to the publication of the JEF Vision, which outlined collaborative strategies for addressing regional security challenges. The vision emphasized the importance of preparedness, cooperation, and a unified approach among JEF nations in protecting critical national infrastructure. It marked a significant step in enhancing the coalition's readiness and strategic coordination in dealing with emerging threats and ensuring the stability of Northern Europe.

The JEF operational headquarters conducted or coordinated nearly 200 engagements throughout the year, from bilateral and multilateral meetings to panel discussions and large receptions, informing hundreds of people about JEF capabilities and contributions to Euro Atlantic Security. STRATCOM has been at the heart of all JEF activities, and participant nations came to gether at the British Embassy in Helsinki to develop messaging and strategies.

Overall, the JEF's activities in 2023 illustrated its evolving role in the security landscape of Northern Europe. The focus on undersea infrastructure protection, coupled with a commitment to intelligence sharing and cooperative defence strategies, reflected the coalition's adaptive approach to contemporary security challenges. This approach, characterized by multi-national collaboration and alignment with NATO, underscores the JEF's growing significance as a regional security contributor.

Joint Protector 24 in Latvia

Exercise Joint Protector 24 will be hosted by the Latvian Ministry of Defence in November 2024. The exercise will take place in the western part of Latvia in the port city of Liepaja by the Baltic Sea.

UK Strategic Command's Joint Warfare Training Organisation will be deploying the Joint Command and Staff Training contract through the Training and Simulation Systems Portfolio. This will provide a fully realised simulated environment and support services, focusing on enhancing the Joint Expeditionary Force's readiness for security challenges in the region. 

The exercise aims to foster cooperation and improve command and control capabilities among the JEF participant nations, with the UK as the framework nation.

The Joint Protector exercise previously took place in Denmark in 2022 and Sweden in 2021.

JEF participant nations Chiefs of Defence

JEF Chiefs of Defence at NATO HQ.

NATO Headquarters in Brussels, Belgium

NATO Headquarters in Brussels, Belgium

© Ad Meskens / Wikimedia Commons


Joint Expeditionary Force (JEF) Chiefs of Defence met at NATO HQ on 18 January 2024.

The UK Chief of the Defence Staff opened the session with reflections on the key themes from the preceding NATO Military Committee in Chiefs of Defence meeting, including consensus for General Chris Cavoli’s (Supreme Allied Commander Europe) assessment of the progress towards Deterrence and Defence of the Euro-Atlantic Area plans and JEF's continued utility in this wider European security architecture.

Other conversation topics included support to Ukraine, Defence Industrialisation, a JEF Response Option activation review, JEF planned activity during 2024-2026 and JEFNet. This forum also provided an opportune moment to bid farewell and thank Major General Jim Morris (UK Standing Joint Force Commander) for all his successful work in advancing the operationalisation of the JEF.

Major General Morris will hand over command of the Standing Joint Force HQ, including all JEF responsibilities, to Major General Tom Bateman CBE in April 24.

JEF nations participating in NATO Steadfast Defender

STEADFAST DEFENDER 2024 is the largest NATO exercise in decades, involving approximately 90,000 personnel drawn from 31 NATO Allies, plus JEF Participant Nation Sweden. This means that all JEF nations will be involved. The exercise demonstrates NATO’s ability to deploy forces rapidly from North America and other parts of the Alliance to reinforce the defence of Europe. STEADFAST DEFENDER is made all the more potent by the recent accession of Finland to NATO, and the progression of Sweden’s application to join the Alliance.

This is an exciting time for the JEF as we build on the successes of last year in ‘operationalising’ our activities. The JEF is now more interoperable and integrated than ever before, and we have a better understanding of the challenges and opportunities of an expanded NATO geography. By contributing to and understanding STEADFAST DEFENDER, the JEF can determine how best to support NATO, whether in peacetime, crisis or war.

In Northern Europe, STEADFAST DEFENDER kicks off with two large exercises. Exercise Joint Warrior and Exercise Nordic Response will see more than 20,000 personnel from 14 countries training to reinforce, then defend the Nordic region through joint operations on land, air and sea. The region is the JEF’s back yard, and the ability of JEF nations to operate in the challenging Arctic conditions of Northern Europe is key to NATO’s defensive strategy. JEF nations will play a significant role in this phase, participating in the full spectrum of warfare, from task group operations, the landing of a UK/NLD joint amphibious force, and land manoeuvre warfare to multinational integrated air defence activity – all this in a challenging cold weather environment.

JEF nations’ contribution highlights the strategic importance of the JEF within NATO's broader strategy for deterrence and defence of the Euro-Atlantic Area, by providing a robust and agile presence in Northern Europe. This contribution is vital for enhancing the alliance's overall readiness and capability to respond to threats, thereby reinforcing NATO's collective security and defence posture in the region.

As demonstrated for the first time last December, ‘JEF Response Options’ (JROs) enable the JEF to act quickly to conduct military deterrence activity. Should this deterrence fail, JROs also help set the conditions for the execution of NATO’s defensive plans, by moving personnel and materiel into positions where they can best defend NATO territory.

By employing JROs early to prevent escalation, the JEF hopes to deter potential adversaries and avoid conflict. Should this deterrence fail, STEADFAST DEFENDER 24 shows that the JEF is ready to support NATO’s plans for the defence of the Alliance.

Norwegian and Swedish Ambassadors with UK CJO and SJFHQ COS at Northwood Headquarters

Norwegian Ambassador Tore Hattrem, CJO Lt Gen Charlie Stickland, Swedish Ambassador Stefan Gullgren and SJFHQ Chief of Staff Brigadier Nick Wight-Boycott.

Norwegian and Swedish Ambassadors visit Northwood Headquarters

On 18 January Norwegian Ambassador Tore Hattrem and Swedish Ambassador Stefan Gullgren visited UK Permanent Joint Headquarters (PJHQ) and the Standing Joint Force Headquarters (SJFHQ), which operates the Joint Expeditionary Force (JEF). 

The purpose of their visit was to meet with UK Chief of Joint Operations (CJO) Lieutenant General Charlie Stickland CB OBE, who leads PJHQ and SJFHQ Chief of Staff Brigadier Nick Wight-Boycott OBE, to learn more about the JEF, the JEF Response Options and its complementarity with NATO.

In their meeting with Brigadier Wight-Boycott, the Ambassadors contributed to a very useful discussion about the JEF, the 2030 Vision, the defence framework's development and future, as well as Russia and her invasion of Ukraine.

The Ambassdors' visit concluded with a lunch hosted by CJO Lt Gen Stickland.

UK Arctic Preparedness – Learning from the experts

Personnel from across the UK’s armed forces have been refining their ability to operate in one of the world’s most inhospitable environments. Understanding the challenges that come with operating in the High North is crucial to the JEF. This has seen members of the British Army take part in Exercise HAMMER, the Finnish Infantry’s high readiness training. Meanwhile, Exercise ARCTIC PHOENIX has put RAF personnel and equipment to the test, deep within the Norwegian Arctic Circle. Where currently, elements of the Royal Navy’s Commando Force, including Royal Marines and the Commando Helicopter Force are deployed in the Arctic to enhance their ability to move and fight across the tough Arctic terrain. And in February, P2000s from the Royal Navy’s Coastal Forces Squadron will deploy on their longest deployment in their 35-year history, going deeper into the Arctic than ever before.

Read more on the JEF LinkedIn page.

UK armed forces personnel refining their ability to operate in cold climates.

Lt Gen Janne Jaakkola has been appointed Finland's Chief of Defence from 1 April 2024.

Former JEF Mil Director appointed Finnish CHOD

Throughout his career, Lieutenant General Janne Jaakkola has excelled in multiple roles both domestically and internationally. Since 2015, he has served in various capacities within the Defence Command, notably as the Chief of Logistics and the Chief of Planning for the Finnish Defence Forces. In his role as Chief of Planning, he also acted as the JEF Military Director for the Finnish Defence Forces. On 1 January 2023, he assumed the role of Deputy Chief of Staff for Strategy.

Lieutenant General Jaakkola is the successor to General Timo Kivinen, following his retirement from the Finnish Armed Forces.

JEF Land Working Group meets in Oslo

The JEF Land Working Group met in Oslo, Norway in early December 23. The JEF Partner Nations were exceptionally well hosted by our Norwegian allies over 2 days of updates and planning development for future JEF Activity in the Land domain.

Fruitful discussions were held around Joint Response Options, and multiple action points were agreed to further develop JEF Land coherence. The next JEF Land Working Group will take place in London, in May 24.

Flags in front of the Norwegian Ministry of Defence. Credit NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization/Flickr(Creative Commons).

The Norwegian Ministry of Defence.

Daniel Rice, Programme Director for JEFNet implementation.

JEFNet a milestone in the JEF operationalisation

In a significant step toward enhancing international defence collaboration, the United Kingdom, serving as the JEF Framework Nation, has established a secure, collaborative working environment known as JEFNet. This initiative aims to facilitate access to vital services including video teleconferencing (VTC), chat, email, and community document management for the international Joint Expeditionary Force (JEF) community. JEFNet's Initial Operating Capability (IOC) has been successfully implemented across the defence ministries of all 10 JEF Nations by FCDO Services, the UK's Diplomatic Technical Services Group. 

JEFNet, under the full support and operation of FCDO Services, is poised to continually evolve based on user feedback and requirements to serve the JEF community better. The network has achieved significant milestones, including strategic-level information exchange capabilities and office collaboration services. It is now moving forwards with the integration of Defence Functional Area Services (FAS) Applications along with NATO interoperability. These advancements mark a pivotal shift towards more integrated and efficient defence mechanisms among the JEF Nations.

The Programme's progress through its phases, from delivering Network, VTC and Desktop collaboration capabilities in 2023 to aiming for Full Operational Capability (FOC) with further integration in 2024, underscores the dynamic nature of JEFNet's development. Notably, the VTC service, launched in September 2023, was promptly utilised by Partner Nations in response to an emergent situation in the Baltics, demonstrating its immediate impact and utility.

The use of JEFNet for regular engagement, standing briefs, and the expressed interest of Partner Nations to expand access and integrate with National Systems highlight the platform's growing significance. As JEFNet continues to evolve, the emphasis on collaborative engagement within the JEF community is paramount. This approach ensures that the network's development is user-driven, aligning with the strategic objectives of the JEF.

A JEFNet working group, comprising senior users from across the Partner Nations, is scheduled to meet in London in early March. This meeting aims to strategise on propelling JEFNet towards its FOC, reinforcing the collective commitment to advancing defence collaboration and interoperability among the JEF Nations.

JEF Hybrid course in Helsinki

Following the identification of a demand signal during Ex JOINT PROTECTOR 21 and subsequent analysis by the Counter Hybrid Threats Integration Workshop in March 2022, the European Centre of Excellence for Countering Hybrid Threats (HCoE) hosted its first JEF Hybrid Threats Joint Operational Planners’ Course (HTJOPC) at the Finnish Defence Forces International Centre (FINCENT) in Helsinki in December 2023.

The course welcomed 22 Operational Planners from JEF Partner Nation (PN) militaries and cross-government sectors. Despite the chilly Finnish winter—considered mild by Nordic standards—participants engaged deeply with HCoE staff and academics to explore Hybrid Threats across Europe and the pivotal role JEF plays in mitigating such activities.

The program aimed to build a solid foundation on Hybrid Threats, covering Hybrid Fundamentals, Disinformation, Strategic Communications, Cyber and Cognitive Superiority, and Deterrence through lessons, discussions, and real-world case studies, including the 2023 BaltiConnector incident and the 2021 Instrumentalized Migration on the Latvia and Lithuania borders.

Further, the course enhanced practical skills through complex Hybrid Wargames, emphasizing the societal challenge of fostering cross-DIME resilience within a dynamic, multinational network. These exercises allowed participants to adopt an adversary's perspective and refine narrative crafting skills for cognitive impact.

The course also facilitated the exchange of ideas and insights among participants from different JEF PNs, highlighting diverse societal mindsets, threat proximities, and resilience strategies.

Following participant feedback, HCoE plans to refine and repeat the course, ensuring that Hybrid Threat awareness and countermeasures remain integral to JEF Operational Planners' strategies.

Participants in the hybrid planning course at the HCoE in Helsinki

Students participating in the inaugural hybrid planning course at the HCoE in Helsinki.

Participants in the hybrid planning course at the HCoE in Helsinki

JEF Participant Nation students take part in Hybrid Commander Sisu, a Hybrid Wargame developed by the European Centre of Excellence for Countering Hybrid Threats, during the Hybrid Threats Joint Operational Planners’ Course in the Finnish Defence Forces International Centre.

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Upcoming JEF events and activities

The JEF Logistics Working Group convenes mid February in London.

The JEF Maritime Working Group meets mid March in the UK.

The JEF Planning Activities Working Group will meet in Stockholm mid April.

The JEF OF5 Steering Group meets end of April in London.

The JEF 2* Pol Mil meeting takes place in Reykjavik in May.

The Medical Working Group meets beginning of May in London.

JEF Activities:

Exercise CLOCKWORK, a joint UK-Norwegian helicopter training in Bardufoss takes place in the period January to March 2024.

Exercise ARCTIC DOLPHIN a Norwegian-led maritime task group exercise in February 2024.

Exercise JOINT WARRIOR, a UK-led joint exercise in February 2024, forms part of the NATO STEADFAST DEFENDER 24 series.

Exercise SNOWMAN is a Finland-led coastal fleet task group training in winter conditions in February and March 2024.

Exercise HANKI is a Finland-hosted tactical air defence exercise in February and March 2024.

Exercise COBRA WARRIOR is a UK-led aviation air integration exercise in February and March 2024.

Exercise NORDIC RESPONSE, formerly known as COLD RESPONSE, is a Norway-led multidomain exercise forming part of NATO STEADFAST DEFENDER 24 series in March 2024.

Previous newsletters

Click here to view the first JEF Newsletter issued in September 2023

Click here to view the second JEF Newsletter issued in November 2023

Update from the Operation Co-ordination Cell

The JEF Operational Co-ordination Cell (OCC) is operated within the Standing Joint Force Headquarters in London and coordinates JEF exercises and activities taking place in the JEF Operational Area.

The OCC was established in January 2022, weeks before Russia´s invasion to Ukraine and has been busy coordinating activities in cooperation with other JEF Participant Nations and global Allies.

Below is a list of JEF activities that have taken place in the second half of 2023 in the JEF Operational Area, the Arctic, the North Atlantic and the Baltic Sea Region:

Exercise JOUTSEN STRIKE (Jul 23). FIN-hosted air integration exercise demonstrating forward projection of air power.

Exercise ENGINEER THUNDER (Sep 23). LTU-hosted combat engineering exercise.

Exercise NAMEJS (Sep 23). SJFHQ supported the CPX element of LVA annual readiness exercise.

Operation FIREDRAKE (Sep/Oct 23). UK CSG operated in Scandinavia and the High North with JEF and NATO phases.

Exercise BAANA (Sep 23). FIN-hosted road-basing air exercise with fighter jets landing on public roads.

Exercise NORTHERN CHALLENGE (Sep 23). ISL Coastguard annual land & maritime EOD exercise for NATO and JEF partners.

Exercise JAGARE (Sep 23). UK 3 RANGERS integrated with SWE troops in SWE-hosted land exercise.

Exercise RUSKA (Sep 23). Main FIN-hosted air exercise including SWE Gripens and GBR F-35s flying from HMS QNLZ.

Exercise PHOENIX STRIKE (Oct 23). SWE-hosted JTAC exercise with multinational participation.

QNLZ Port Visit Gothenburg (Oct 23). UK carrier visit to SWE including hosting of a JRO workshop.

Exercise HAMMER (Oct/Nov 23). UK participation in FIN-led mechanised infantry exercise.

Exercise AMBER MIST (Nov 23). LTU-hosted Cyber exercise with wide multinational participation.

Exercise ARCTIC PHOENIX (Nov 23). NOR-hosted aircraft winterisation exercise.

Exercise FREEZING WINDS (Nov 23). Main FIN-hosted maritime task group exercise in the Gulf of Finland.

Exercise ARCTIC FOX (Dec 23). NOR-hosted extreme cold weather parachuting exercise.

JRO Activation (Dec 23). All JEF participant nations contributed to CNI monitoring in JEF JOA.

The Standing Joint Force Headquarters (SJFHQ) in London operates the Joint Expeditionary Force, as UK is the framework nation.

About the JEF

The Joint Expeditionary Force was formally launched as a NATO initiative at the September 2014 Wales Summit, under the then new “Framework Nations Concept”.

The JEF is a framework of ten like-minded Northern European nations focused on mutual support and cooperation. By collaborating, training, and operating together, JEF enhances collective capability and develops interoperability. In turn, through persistent activity and signature exercises, the JEF demonstrates its readiness to act as a collective and whilst being prepared to support NATO as the ultimate security guarantor for the region.

The JEF Participant Nations are: Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the UK which is the Framework Nation.

Nine of the JEF Participant Nations are also members of NATO, with Finland as the most recent Member State. Sweden's path to joining NATO was established at the NATO Vilnius Summit on 11-12 July 2023.

All JEF Participant Nations have a Liaison Officer embedded into the Standing Joint Force Headquarters in Northwood, London.

The JEF in pictures

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Copyright Disclaimer: Unless specified, photos published in this newsletter have either been provided by the JEF participant nations' Governments, are available under the terms of the Open Government License, have previously been published on JEFNations Social Media channels, and/or fall under the UK MOD © Crown copyright 2023, published on UK Defence Imagery.