1. Implement regional and continental agreements in the context of the APSA.
3. Ensure well-equipped, competent national security structures/mechanisms to participate in continental assignments.
|Silencing the Guns by 2020
ASPIRATION 4 OF AGENDA 2063: An Africa of good governance, democracy, respect for human rights, justice and the rule of law.
here are three Goals in Aspiration 4 from 13-15:
Goal 13 : Peace, Security and Stability are Preserved
- Maintenance and Preservation of Peace and Security
Goal 14 : A Stable and Peaceful Africa
- Institutional structure for AU Instruments on Peace and Security
Goal 15 : A Fully Functional and Operational African Peace and Security (AP
- Fully operational and functional African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA) Pillars
The corresponding UN SDG is Goal 16.
The AU Peace and Security sector:
- Promotes Peace, security and stability in Africa;
- Anticipates and prevents conflicts;-and where conflicts have occurred;
- Undertakes peace-making and peace-building functions for the resolution of conflicts;
- Promotes and implements peace-building and post-conflict reconstruction activities to consolidate peace and prevent the resurgence of violence;
- Co-ordinates and harmonizes continental efforts in the prevention and combating of international terrorism in all its aspects; develops a common defence policy for the Union;
- Promotes and encourages democratic practices, good governance and the rule of law, protect human rights and fundamental freedoms, respect for the sanctity of human life and international humanitarian law, as part of efforts for preventing conflicts.
On December 4-5, 2008, the Peace and Security Council (PSC) of the African Union held a Retreat in Livingstone, Zambia. The objective of the Retreat was to consider an appropriate mechanism for interaction between the Peace and Security Council and Civil Society Organizations(CSOs) in the promotion of peace, security and stability in Africa within the framework of article 20 of the PSC Protocol.
In this regard, the Retreat adopted the conclusions II. CONCLUSIONS A) Title/Name of the Formula 3. The name of the formula for interaction between the PSC and CSOs in the promotion of peace, security and stability in Africa is called Livingstone Formula.
B) Modalities of interaction Procedural aspects 4. The Retreat agreed that the PSC remains master of its procedures and decisions, and that the Economic, Social and Cultural Council (ECOSOCC), as the consultative organ responsible for coordinating the participation of civil society in the work of the African Union, particularly through the Peace and Security Cluster as the focal point n engaging members and entities in the civil society in addressing peace and security issues.
The vehicle through which the civil society can participate in the peace process is through the Livingstone Formula, which is included the description segment. It includes:
i) Conflict prevention (early warning):
CSOs may provide technical support to AU Field and fact-finding missions and Regional Economic Communities/RMS. By undertaking early warning reporting and situation analysis, civil society organizations can assist in enhancing the research and analysis process that feeds information into the decision-making process of the PSC.
ii) Peacemaking and Mediation:
CSOs may assist and advise mediation teams during negotiations. CSOs can provide information to Special Envoys/Representatives of the Chairperson of the Commission of the African Union in the execution of their work. CSOs may also participate in giving publicity to the peacemaking process to enable the wider population to be informed of the ongoing efforts to broker peace in the country.
Following the signing of a peace agreement, CSOs may assist, in a complementary manner, the AU and the PSC to devise effective processes to ensure that the parties to a conflict are assisted in the implementation of peace agreements. CSOs may also work in support of PSC authorized peacekeeping missions by undertaking some aspects of the civilian component of the operation. This might, for example, involve supporting the work of the civilian component of the African Standby Force.
iv) Humanitarian support, peace-building, post-conflict reconstruction and development:
After the signing of peace agreements, CSOs may work in complementality to the efforts of the PSC and Special Envoys/Representatives of the Chairperson of the AU Commission in post-conflict confidence-building and support reconciliation processes in war-affected regions. Also, in the aftermath of conflict, CSOs may assist in rebuilding of communities to enable the delivery of basic services to the people.
v: Provision of technical support:
CSOs may work on environmental rehabilitation issues to enable local populations to resume normal activities. In addition, CSOs may work with local governments to reestablish water, electricity, and re-build social infrastructures.
CSOs may provide training sessions and workshops to impart skills and knowledge on peace building for specific parties to a conflict or for countries and regions that require such training. CSOs may backstop mediation efforts by providing appropriate information required on particular aspects, objectives, and procedures of the mediation process.
vii) Monitoring and impact assessment of the implementation of peace agreements:
CSOs may contribute to monitoring of the implementation of PSC decisions, particularly those relating to peace agreements and provide independent evaluation reports and briefs that would help the PSC in reviewing the situation.
viii) Post-conflict situations:
CSOs may engage in peace-making and peace-building, humanitarian assistance; addressing basic needs of returnees and internally-displaced persons; economic recovery and rehabilitation of ex-combatants; rebuilding the administrative infrastructure, disarmament and demobilization and reintegration of ex-combatants, especially child soldiers, as well as provide counsel and moral support to victims of violence and other members of the community affected by war.
ix) Advocacy/Publicity for PSC Decisions:
CSOs may play a complementary role in the advocacy/publicity of AU-PSC decisions and activities, using their wide continental and international networks, to contribute to a better understanding of PSC decisions by the population.