• A Special Shabbat on 2/1
  • Tu BiShvat Seder
  • Chant Circle
  • Book Club
  • ICYMI: Our First Early Shabbat
  • Social Action: Show You Care
  • Social Action: Bethesda Help
  • Help Needed: Communications
  • Food to Eat
  • Meet A Member
February 2020 Newsletter
Rabbi Elhanan ‘Sunny’ Schnitzer
Shevat/Adar  5780

CLICK for the Complete BJC February Events Calendar
Kriat HaRav—The Rabbi’s Call
Rabbi Elhanan “Sunny” Schnitzer
Recently, I messed up.
The details are unimportant, but I truly regretted what had happened, and so I attempted to make T’shuvah with the person I had offended. To seek forgiveness and repair the relationship.
The process of T’shuvah has made me wonder: What does a person gain by holding onto anger? By holding on to a grudge? Does attempting to make a person whom we feel has wronged us feel guilty give us anything we truly want or need? Does it actually cost us something when we refuse to forgive?
When you truly forgive, there is a great internal transformation. You are changed. Your perspective is different.
But too often we ignore the opportunity for change. Perhaps we are unable to grasp it. But, I know this much—forgiveness contains within it the ultimate power for healing.
To forgive is not an act of kindness toward the person who has wronged you. Forgiveness is an act of kindness towards yourself.
It is not about what your offender deserves, it is about what you deserve. We all deserve a life without fear or anger.
We have greater things than anger to feel. And to forgive is to rid yourself of anger, fear, and obsession. Imagine the relief of not feeling those things. Imagine the freedom. Imagine the energy you would have for creative endeavors if you were not focused on thinking, avoiding, or plotting angry deeds.
It is called for give ness because you GIVE AWAY anger fear and resentment.
To give up your anger is not to capitulate, or to lose ground, or to give in. There is no loss of identity. We can surrender to a softer place, a place of peace, not strife. At the moment of surrender you reclaim your own path. You realize its beauty. You realize that in the struggle there was blessing. When anger is replaced by forgiveness, you are free to love. Not just to love others, but also to love yourself.
Don’t be afraid of the struggle. Don’t shy away from the hard work of real forgiveness. See the struggle as a chance to triumph, to deepen, to grow.
As we strive to love others, let us not forget to love ourselves. We often forget that.
It is as if when we hold a grudge we are forgetting to love ourselves. And that is a violation of one of our Torah’s most cherished mitzvot . A guiding principle.
Vayikra , the Book of Leviticus, Chapter 19, Verse 18: V’ahavtah L’reichacha Kamocha . The common translation of this is to love your neighbor as yourself.
But a closer reading reveals a better translation, “Love your neighbor just like you love yourself. Or love yourself as much as you love your neighbor.”
As we deepen love for ourselves, we deepen our capacity to love others. Love heals. It heals the wounded soul. It heals the relationships we cherish. It heals the world. Self love strengthens our ability to be loving beings.
We have so many regrets. There are so many times that we should have or could have chosen a different path or gone in a different direction.
Every time we use the words “ should have ,” we accuse ourselves of not doing our best. Every time we say “ could have ,” we second guess ourselves for not choosing a different path. Guilt and regret lie heavy on our souls. Imagine how high we could soar if we were not weighed down by these thoughts.
It is not enough to forgive others and ask for their forgiveness, we must also forgive ourselves.
Let us turn from accusation to understanding. That’s what repentance means in Hebrew. The word T’shuvah means to turn. To turn toward the right path, the path that leads to appreciating of the self and of the other.
T’shuvah it’s not just for the High Holy Days.

Rabbi Sunny Schnitzer
From the Director of Congregational EducationRabbi Jennifer Weiner
Experiencing Israel Through a New Lens
Visiting Israel through the Executive Masters of Jewish Educational Leadership Program at Hebrew Union College/Jewish Institute of Religion was like no other Israel trip I had ever experienced. It was not a tour of five sights in one day. Instead, it was planned with intention to help us explore intricate aspects of modern Israel in such a manner to make us wrestle with the concept of how to teach Israel to the communities we serve.
In the past, I went to Israel out of a sense of unabashed love. I was raised with the sense of loving Israel as part of my identity, with Zionism as an ideology. I lived in Israel, I toured Israel, and I worked/volunteered in a development city in Israel. 
On this trip, as we made on-site visits to schools, visited different communal initiatives, met with individuals and groups, learned the stories of the people we met, and witnessed the outcome of different governmental campaigns, our rose-colored glasses became a little less idealistic. The question of how to teach the true Israel while still instilling the love of Israel became a looming question for many of us. We met Bedouin women defying the cultural norms of their community to make a living. A Palestinian Muslim took us to his childhood village that is now a JNF forest. We experienced the dwindling cafes that used to populate every other block in Tel Aviv and Jerusalem. Our cohorts also learned the stories of many immigrants and long-time citizens of Israel. In other words, we met the inhabitants of the land.
I love Israel. I always will. Yet, this program helped me understand that while Israel is a country with a very different history than many other countries in the world, it still has the same responsibilities to its citizens. How do we treat each other as equal and equitable human beings while still being true to the ideals of the concept of Israel? Do I have more say in the trajectory of Israel as a nation simply because I am Jewish? How do we, as a global community, honor the rights of all those who claim the land of Israel as their own? Should my status as a Jew be able to prevail over those of a Palestinian or Muslim or Christian living on and in the land that many of us were brought up to love because it is the land promised to us from God in the Torah? How do we teach these complex ideas and ideals to our students so that we do not teach only the good and none of the struggles? Those are some of the many enduring dilemmas left with my classmates and me as we traveled home from our homeland.
On one of our last days in Israel, Mike Prashker, author of the forthcoming book, A Place for Us All—Social Cohesion and the Future of Israel , expressed two very important concepts to our group. Prashker stated that Israel must work toward a greater cohesion based on shared citizenship. He also reminded us that the founders had no previous experience creating and working within a truly democratic society and country. He concluded his teaching with Israel is “doing better than expected, but less than required.”
I invite you to become part of the conversation and implementation of teaching our students about Israel in the modern world. Join me in parent discussions that will be scheduled for the spring. Let us learn together and help our students learn about Israel as the people, the land, and as part of our heritage.
Cain yehi ratzon …May it be God’s will.
President's Column—Sandra Walter
On Being Jewish
NPR is on my radio at some point most mornings as I head to work. As the 75th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz is observed, there’s a story of two women in their 90s detailing the horrors they experienced—and survived. And it has me thinking, as the topic of the Holocaust usually does—it could have been me.
No, not literally. But, it could have been any of us but for another place and time. I’m not aware of losing any immediate family members, which I’m sure some of you have. May their memories be a blessing.
I always think that just by being a Jew —it could have been me. (Listen, I had to stop watching The Man in the High Castle after Season One because it felt all too possible —even if in an alternate reality.) The documented rise in anti-Semitic incidents in recent years strengthens my resolve as a Jew, and with that, my understanding that it’s not enough to BE a Jew. That is something most of us are born with from our parents without us having to do a thing to claim it.
One has to BE Jewish!
It’s an active state of expressing who we are through traditions of family and culture, through practice of prayer and ritual, through mitzvot and deeds that make us a meaningful and respected part of a larger, diverse community of humanity.
Your membership, tzedakah , volunteering, and participation with BJC is an act of being Jewish. Since community coming together—like the minyan —is a basic tenet of Judaism, thank you for being Jewish and being part of our community. While the phase, “it takes a village,” comes from an African proverb, I believe that as Jews we understand from our souls what that means. 
Thank you for being an important part of our “village,” of giving life and breath to our Jewish community, of giving generously to fuel our ability to provide a place literally and figuratively where being Jewish is nurtured and important. Thank you for your financial support, the time you take to make it to Shabbat services and programs, the attention you give to projects and committees working on behalf of us all and those who need a voice or helping hand, the kindness you show those of us going through simchas and sorrows.
This is being Jewish. This is strength against anti-Semitism. This is BJC. 
From the BJC Administrator—Hal Bordy
Dear BJC Community,
Apologies for the delays in doing our transition to ShulCloud. Before migrating information into the new system, BJC Treasurer Terri Reicher , the accountants, and I have been working to make sure that information that is being transferred is accurate. We are about ready to go.
A questionnaire is in the works to give you an opportunity to update and/or correct your information, including an opportunity to update and correct information on yahrzeits . You may want to do the yahrzeit information updates now in advance of the questionnaire, and I would welcome the opportunity to make corrections and additions.
The needed yahrzeit information is:
  • Name of the person being memorialized
  • The relationship to you along with your name
  • English date of passing with the year and, if possible, time of passing to make sure the yahrzeit is on the right day
I will update files in the new ShulCloud system as I receive them. Also, if you have changes in your contact information such as telephone numbers, email addresses, or mailing address, please send them to me, as well.
With the migration to ShulCloud we will also be redesigning our website. If you have any experience with web design, writing, or would like to help in some fashion, please let us know. And, your time would count to your 3 hours for Show You Care—Do Your Share.
B’Shalom .
Rabbi's Message
Please be in touch with me in times of joy, sadness, or illness in your life or in the lives of a loved one or another member of the congregation. This is particularly necessary now that HIPAA regulations have made getting information from hospitals extremely difficult. I greatly appreciate your help keeping me informed of the health needs of our congregation. Please call: 301-469-8636 #3.

Click for the complete BJC February Calendar
A Very Special Shabbat: Saturday, February 1
Immerse Yourself in a Contemplative Shabbat
Join Rabbi Jeff Roth , Klia Bassing , Rabbi Mark Novak , and Rabbi Sunny for a contemplative Shabbat of chant, Torah, silence, and mindful play. Spiritual practice can help guide us into alignment with the Divine nature of Unfolding Being, fostering a sense of direct experience of Divine Presence. The practice helps cultivate the wholesome mind states of gratitude, joy, and clarity—the fruits of Shabbat practice.
9:30 AM                Sit with Rabbi Jeff
10 AM-12:30 PM     Contemplative Shabbat Morning Service and Mindful Play (Please Arrive Promptly)
12:30-1:30 PM       Vegetarian Potluck Lunch, please bring a dish to share.
Instructions for eating meditation will guide us into a partially silent lunch period.

1:30-4:30 PM          The Afternoon Session will introduce a number of meditation practices accompanied by times of silence, teachings on the goals and context for contemplation in Judaism, and question and discussion periods.
This event is free, but supporting donations are gratefully accepted through Minyan Oneg Shabbat website
Rabbi Jeff Roth is the founder and Director of The Awakened Heart Project for Contemplative Judaism. He was the co-founder of Elat Chayyim, where he served as Executive Director and Spiritual Director for 13 years. He has facilitated over 100 Jewish meditation retreats. Jeff is the author of Jewish Meditation Practices for Everyday Life, Me, Myself, and God , available through Jewish Lights Publishing.
Stop Gun Violence
Sunday, February 2, 11 AM - 12:30 PM
Join us for a panel discussion exploring effective policy solutions to reduce gun violence in Maryland and nationally. Learn more about existing legislation in Maryland and what role you can play in advocating for additional measures to keep our state a leader in gun violence prevention. You’ll have the opportunity to learn from and ask questions of a key legislator, a policy expert, and a leading advocate for stronger gun safety legislation.
Chant Circle
Saturday, February 8, 4:30 PM
Chant is an ancient form of meditation that can open the doors of perception.

Repetition of a sacred phrase can clear the mind of clutter, and connect us to each other and the divine.
Join chant leader, Rebbetzin Yaffah Schnitzer , for a program designed to reach and strengthen your spiritual core. Experience the power and potential of this pathway to soul healing. No prior knowledge of singing, chanting, or Hebrew language is necessary
Please bring a mat or pillow, for your comfort, if you like. RSVP to:
TuBiShvat Seder
Sunday, February 9, 5-7 PM
Join BJC and BHPC for a special night of Interfaith Education. Celebrate Tu BiShvat Seder (New Year of the Trees) with your neighbors. We will learn about our communities’ traditions about trees and taste our way through this mystical experience.
RSVP to Administrator Hal Bordy at .
If you have questions about the program or want to volunteer to help make it happen, email Rabbi Jennifer at or
Book Club
Wednesday, February 26 & March 25, 8 PM

The BJC Open Book Club meets in the Lounge at 8 PM usually on the 4th Wednesday of every month. Anyone is welcome to join or just drop in for a particular book discussion. For more information, please contact Evelyn Ganzglass    

February 26 : News of the World by National Book Award Finalist, Paulette Jiles is an exquisitely rendered and morally complex work of historical fiction that explores the boundaries of family, responsibility, honor, and trust. It is set in the unsettled Texas territory in the 1870’s and focuses on the bond between a solitary widower and young orphan.

March 25 : Celestial Bodies by Jokha Alharthi, winner of the 2019 Man Booker International Prize, is a novel about three Omani women and their families told against the backdrop of a rapidly changing Omani society. Through the sisters, the reader glimpses a society in all its degrees, from the very poorest of the local slave families to those making money through the advent of new wealth.
Early Friday Night Shabbat Service
February 28 & the Fourth Friday of Every Month, 6 - 7:45 PM
Join us for a nosh and a little ruach to enhance your Friday evening.
Our Shabbat “pre-Neg” features hors d’oeuvres, veggies, and dips from 6-6:30 PM. An intimate Shabbat service follows and finishes at 7:45 with kiddush . No after service Oneg Shabbat , and you will be home in time for dinner.
Our First Early Shabbat

On January 24, BJC held its first 4th Friday of the month Early Shabbat. A delightful crowd gathered around 6 PM for socializing and a “pre-Neg,” a little nosh before services. At 6:30, Rabbi Schnitzer led a robust group of worshippers in a short, yet meaningful service, which concluded about an hour later with the kiddush . This is an ideal service for those who want to come straight from work or who have younger families. Why not try it out in February?  
Show You Care, Do Your Share Update
By Harri j. Kramer, Chair, Social Action Committee

W e’re hearing from a few people about their experiences volunteering to help others, and it is so gratifying to learn about how our BJC family has been assisting others. Around the time of Martin Luther King’s birthday, with its concomitant National Day of Service, on January 14, the Washington Post Health & Science section featured the life effects of volunteering. Jamil Zaki, an associate professor of psychology at Stanford University noted, “We flourish not by besting others, but by being part of something greater than ourselves.” He also wrote, “The evidence is uncontroversial—by serving others, we help ourselves.
Let’s recap the important message of Show You Care—Do Your Share : every member of the BJC family should volunteer at least 3 hours before our next High Holy Days .
For our slightly more mature members, if you’re stuck for ideas how to use your talents for the greater good, start by contacting the Montgomery County 50+ Volunteer Network. This unique program has helped hundreds of residents like you find meaningful, on-going volunteer opportunities that meet their needs and desires. Through individualized, in-person consultations with experienced advisers, these volunteers are now successfully serving at a broad range of organizations representing a host of causes as tutors and mentors, program managers and assistants, outreach and advocacy specialists, board members, communicators, administrative support, and more. Plus, the 50+ Volunteer Network receives new opportunities and registers new nonprofits weekly. Email today, and get started on finding your best fit volunteer opportunity.
Very soon, you will be receiving an old-fashioned snail mail letter from BJC telling you about how to let the Social Action Committee know for whom you have been volunteering and for how long. We’ll be charting our success on the bulletin board outside of the office and in various articles. Please let us know about your good deeds!
Do good now—it’s good for you! (And report it to us soon.) Any questions? Write to .
Bethesda Help, Neighbors Helping Neighbors in Need
By Harri j. Kramer
How many times have you come in through BJC’s side entrance and seen a shopping cart parked at the top of the stairs? That shopping cart is collecting food for Bethesda Help.
Bethesda Help has been an important part of our community since 1968, working in the down county area. It is an all-volunteer, nonprofit 501(c)(3), that provides the following services:

  • Delivering an emergency 3-day supply of food for every member of a household
  • Giving rent money for those facing eviction, or for utilities about to be shut off
  • Funding full or partial payments for needed prescription drugs
  • Providing referrals to social service assistance
Bethesda Help needs your help. Here are some ways to volunteer:

  • Work from home one day a month or more
  • Drive to deliver food to families in need
  • Serve as the Officer of the day to check messages and make follow up calls
And, please donate non-perishable food in our shopping cart. Or be generous and send a financial contribution. For example, to feed a two-person family for 3 days, it’s only $15. $30 will feed a family of six for 3 days.
You can learn more by going to or downloading their brochure here .
Through the end of February, we are collecting urgently needed goods for the Stepping Stones Shelter, which BJC supports throughout the year. Look for the big red box in the Gathering Space and drop off your donations there. Click here for the list of what’s needed.
Communicating That You Care
By Helen Dalton

The Social Action Committee at BJC is swinging into high gear this month with the congregation-wide initiative to “ Show You Care—Do Your Share .” In addition to wherever you volunteer, I urge you to turn your focus to BJC and help us get the word out about our great community of people, programs, and worship services.
I want to encourage those of you with communications, marketing, design, public relations, social media, or web experience to volunteer to be part of the current Communications Committee. BJC needs your expertise. As the former chair, I know how important this volunteer work is, and I encourage you to step up and give a few hours a month of your time and talent to help BJC get the word out—to keep folks informed, motivated, inspired, and intrigued about BJC. Can we count on you? 
Will you “show you care” about BJC so much that you will “do your share” by letting everyone know how great our synagogue is? There are so many opportunities throughout the year to promote our amazing offerings, not to mention our unique relationship with Bradley Hills Presbyterian Church. We need help with creating lively and timely communications to attract and interest those in our community to consider becoming members. A vibrant, active and observant congregation needs air and sunlight to continue to grow and thrive—that’s communications in a nutshell.
If you like to write and create and, like me, if you like to know what is going on all around you, taking up the communications challenge for BJC is just the perfect volunteer opportunity. Rack up your social action volunteering hours, engage your wit and wisdom, show off your skills, abilities, and humor to attract, interest, educate, inform, and persuade. 
You don’t have to do it alone. Find fellow members to join you in these efforts and let Sandra Walter, BJC’s president, know of your interest and commitment. Or we will connect you with other like-minded volunteers.   
While it’s time for new voices and ideas, I never stop seeing ways to showcase BJC. So I’m happy to stay in touch and to provide you with tools, lists, and recent samples. Seize this great opportunity, not only to exercise your creative muscles, but also to do your share and make everyone care about BJC. 
Share your thoughts about what matters to you. We often see our members published in The Washington Post. Let the rest of us in on your thinking. Youth of all ages are encouraged to share. Send your thoughts to:
Editor’s Note:   Here’s where we share seasonal recipes. Please submit your favorites! Send to  

With Super Bowl around the corner, here’s a slightly Jewish twist on a delectable munchable for the big game. Recipe courtesy   

Pastrami Tater Tots
2 large russet potatoes
1/4 cup mayo
1/4 lb pastrami
1/2 tsp paprika
1/2 tsp garlic powder
1/2 tsp salt
1/4 tsp black pepper
1 cup flour
2 eggs
1-2 cups panko bread crumbs
1. Bring large pot of salted water to a boil. Peel and cube potatoes.
2. Cook potatoes until tender, around 8-10 minutes. Drain and add to a large bowl and mash.
3. In a skillet over medium heat, crisp up each piece of pastrami in batches, cooking 2-3 minutes on each side. Remove from pan and dice finely.
4. Add mayo, paprika, garlic powder, salt and pepper to potato mixture. Mix in diced pastrami.
5. Prep your dredging station. Place flour in one bowl, two beaten eggs in the second bowl, and panko crumbs in a third bowl.
6. Form tater tots into 1/2 inch to 1 inch pieces and place on a baking sheet. Dredge tots into flour, then egg then panko and place onto baking sheet. Pop into freezer for 30 minutes or in the fridge for 1 hour.
7. Heat vegetable oil in a large skillet over medium-high heat. Fry each tot until golden brown on the outside and remove from pan. Place onto a baking sheet or platter lined with paper towel. Sprinkle with salt while still hot.
8. Serve with preferred dipping sauce. Recipe yields around 3 dozen.

Editor’s Note: Here’s a spot to kvell with your BJC community. Let us know what you’re celebrating. An engagement? A new baby? Grandbaby? Got into that great college? A new job? Send your good news to:

  • Mazel Tov to Mr. Slivoviz, Russ Hogya, on celebrating a big birthday on January 21.
MEET A MEMBER: Barry Dwork
What brought you to BJC?
The main reason I came to BJC in 2004 was because I was seeking a close community of fellow Jews who believed that there were different ways to be a Jew and live a Jewish life. But what sold me on joining is the role of music in the services, which for me is the key to feeling Jewish spirituality.
Another reason for joining is because BJC really tries to put into action the command from Deuteronomy to welcome the stranger.
How are you involved at BJC?
Besides attending Friday night Shabbat services, I share readings each year during the High Holy Days Services.
What does BJC mean to you?
In the increasingly diverse world that we are living in, BJC rejects the tribalism that we find in American society, and among many other American Jews. Instead, BJC embraces the partnership we experience with our Christian and Muslim brothers and sisters.
Tell us about your background and what you're up to now.
I am originally from New Jersey. I moved to the Washington, DC area during the 1980s. I attended religious school and became a Bar Mitzvah in a synagogue that was traditionally conservative, but headed by an Orthodox rabbi.
At present, I am a contractor librarian working for a federal government agency.

Esther Bachrach, mother of Burt Bachrach
Amy Lynn Barsky, sister of Lisa Strauss
Elisha Barsky, father of Lisa Strauss
Edward Baum, father of Bruce Baum
Harold Bernard, brother of Cathy Bernard
Norma Bernard, mother of Cathy Bernard
Mildred Busman, mother of Bruce Busman
Margaret “Peg” Campiglia, mother of John Camp
Irving Cassell, father of Wynne Busman
Charles Coplan, father of Lois Rose
Billie Evey, mother of Bunny Roufa
Mordechai Frank, father of Stuart Frank
Georg Gluckstein, father of Fritz Gluckstein
Ida Goldstein, mother of Lorrie van Akkeren
Nettie Jacobs, grandmother of Donna Goldberg
Dr. Ilse Judas, mother of Allen Grunes
Bernice S. Kramer, mother of Harri Kramer
Nathan Kramer, uncle of Harri Kramer
Charlotte Panton, sister of Barbara Faigin
Morton Peterson, father of Jon Peterson
Benjamin Rouse, husband of Bunny Roufa
Barbara Schwartz, mother of Melissa Schwartz
Abraham Sherman, grandfather of Harri Kramer
William Abbe Sternfeld, father of Eliot Sternfeld
Ann Umans, mother of Dorothy Umans
Thank You

A Shout Out to our Oneg Hosts in January
Issie Resti
Larry Slifman
Anita & Warren Farb
Karen Levy
Donna & Dan Goldberg
Sharon & Stephen Lande
Nancy Glassman
Lisa Savitt & Michael Phillips
Donations to Good As We Give

Lauren Rathmann & Howard Berkhof
Cynthia & Leonard Bogorad
Helen & Michael Dalton
Alan Dubin
Karen Jerome and Jonathan Eig
Nancy Glassman
Melissa & Paul Klein
Liz Sloss & Jim Korelitz
Marsha and Leslie Levine for social justice programs
Lorraine & Dale McMillen
Amy & Bruce Mehlman
Nancy & Herbert Milstein
Wendy Mellinger & Robert Poogach
Terri Reicher
Judy & David Scott
Jane & David Slacter
Norma & Ed Stern
Emily & Antoine van Agtmael
Lorrie van Akkeren
Sandra Walter
Rachel Mosher-Williams & David Williams

Donations to the General Fund

Lisa & Jonathan Peterson
Judy & Al Folsom, in memory of Al’s mother, Cecelia Folsom
Donations to the Rabbi’s Discretionary Fund

Lorrie Van Akkeren,

Donation to the Maran Gluckstein Family Education Fund

Nancy Glassman
A Special Thank You

And to all of our members who “round up” their synagogue support and donate their time, as well as donate their time to volunteer.
Board of Trustees

President Sandra Walter
Vice-President Jeremy Pelter
Treasurer Terri Reicher
Secretary Lorrie Van Akkeren

Jason Engel
Ken Fine 
Alan Grunes
Alan Lichter
Ted Posner
David Slacter
Committee Chairs
Communication [An Opportunity!]
Education Issie Resti
Financial Advisor Jason Engel
High Holy Days Jim Korelitz
Student Representative Sammy Peterson Intercongregational Partnership Liaison
Marty Ganzglass
Membership Diane Blumenthal
Past President Shoshanah Drake
Programs Jaon Weidenfeld
Social Action Harri j. Kramer

BJC Administration
Spiritual Leader Rabbi Sunny Schnitzer
Director of Congregational Education Rabbi Jennifer Weiner
Synagogue Administrator Hal Bordy

BJC News
Newsletter Editor Harri j. Kramer


Bethesda Jewish Congregation
6601 Bradley Boulevard
Bethesda, MD 20817-3042
Tel: 301-469-8636