The M-PEA Multi-function plant efficiency analyzer: The most comprehensive advanced lab-based system for investigation of plant photosynthetic efficiency
High-quality fast fluorescence kinetic & P700+ absorbance studies + Ground-breaking Delayed Fluorescence (DF) measurements.
The M-PEA combines high-quality fast fluorescence kinetic and P700+ absorbance studies with ground-breaking delayed fluorescence (DF) measurements providing one of the most comprehensive systems for the investigation of plant photosynthetic efficiency available.

The lab-based measurement system consisting of a control unit and sophisticated, robust sensor unit housing all optical emitters and detectors.

Design, upload and execute complex experiments utilizing the M-PEAs comprehensive Windows ® software via a USB 2.0 connection.
M-PEA Optical Sensor
The M-PEA optical sensor unit is a robust enclosure incorporates sophisticated electronics that effectively control all light sources and detectors.

The M-PEA-1 sensor unit includes a high-intensity red actinic source, a far-red light source, the prompt fluorescence detector and the modulated emitter/detector pair for P700+ absorbance measurements.

M-PEA-2 additionally includes a high-sensitivity delayed fluorescence detector and a detector to measure leaf absorptivity.
  • Advanced lab-based system for investigation of plant photosynthetic efficiency
  • M-PEA-1 variant for prompt fluorescence & P700+ modulated absorbance measurements
  • M-PEA-2 variant as M-PEA-1 with additional measurements of delayed fluorescence (DF) & leaf absorptivity
  • Sophisticated sensor unit with all optical emitters & detectors in a robust, enclosed housing
  • USB connection to a Windows® PC
  • Comprehensive Windows® experimental design, data transfer & analysis software
Common Parameters
Fo – Represents emission by excited chlorophyll a molecules in the antennae structure of Photosystem II. The true  Fo level is only observed when the first stable electron acceptor of Photosystem II called  Qa is fully oxidised. This requires thorough dark adaptation.

Fv  – Indicates the variable component of the recording and relates to the maximum capacity for photochemical quenching. Calculated by subtracting Fo value from the  Fm value ( Fm - Fo ).

Fv/Fm  – An indication of the maximum quantum efficiency of Photosystem II and widely considered to be a sensitive indicator of plant photosynthetic performance. Presented as a ratio between 0 and 1, healthy samples typically achieve a maximum Fv/Fm value of approx. 0.85. Values lower than this will be observed if a sample has been exposed to some type of biotic or abiotic stress factor which has reduced the capacity for photochemical quenching within PSII.  is presented as a ratio of variable fluorescence ( Fv ) over the maximum fluorescence value ( Fm ) and is calculated as ( Fm - Fo)/Fv .
Fm  – The maximum fluorescence value obtained for a continuous light intensity. This parameter may only be termed as maximal if the light intensity used is fully saturating and the electron acceptor  Qa is fully reduced.

Tfm  – Indicates the time at which the maximum fluorescence value ( Fm ) was reached. May be used to indicate Fv/Fm.
sample stress which causes the Fm to be reached much earlier than expected.

Area  – The area above the fluorescence curve between Fo and Fm is proportional to the pool size of the electron acceptors Qa on the reducing side of Photosystem II. If electron transfer from the reaction centers to the quinone pool is blocked (such as is the mode of action of the photosynthetically active herbicide DCMU), the area will be dramatically reduced.

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