C&NN's Research Digest
  ARCHIVE        |       JUNE  2017
IN THIS ISSUE:
A curated selection of newly published research
Urban Park / Greenspace Design and Use
>Park users are willing to pay for parks, as they highly value them for the physical, mental, and social benefits they provide
>Incorporating Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) into traditional urban greening practices may optimize reductions in fear of crime
>Spatial, temporal and neighborhood dynamics influence greenspace crime
>Closeness to urban green space is related to higher frequency of physical activity and less screen time for children but not for teens
>Walking loops in parks may be an effective way to increase population level physical activity
>Children's use of urban green spaces is strongly linked to parents' attitudes and characteristics of the physical settings
>Assessing psychological factors affecting urban park use may be an effective approach to increasing use of existing parks
>Adolescents prefer parks with adventurous and challenging equipment, free of rubbish and graffiti
Biophilia/Connection with Nature
>Parental characteristics and attitudes predict children's connection with nature and outdoor activities
>Education based on natural sustainability highlights the non-dual relation between the self and the rest of the natural world
Crime and 
Fear of Crime
>Incorporating Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) into traditional urban greening practices may optimize reductions in fear of crime
>Spatial, temporal, and neighborhood dynamics influence greenspace crime
>Community greening did not show a reduction in crime in New Haven, CT
Education for Sustainability
>Children's ideas about sustainability are developed through experiential, investigative, sensorial and place-oriented ways of learning
>Education based on natural sustainability highlights the non-dual relation between the self and the rest of the natural world
Green Schoolyards and Gardens
>Children's participation in the planning and management of school ground greening influences outcomes
>School gardens are used more for academic instruction than for school nutrition programs
Mental Health
>The psychological health of rural children is associated with housing quality but not with neighborhood conditions, including access to nature
Physical Activity
>Closeness to urban green space is related to higher frequency of physical activity and less screen time for children but not for teens
>Walking loops in parks may be an effective way to increase population level physical activity
>Adolescents prefer parks with adventurous and challenging equipment and free of rubbish and graffiti
Play / Nature Play
>The existing definition and characteristics of risky play may not be useful for one-year-olds
>Nature play program provided families with enriched connections with each other and with nature 
The Research Library and Digest are provided with support from:
Dear friends,

If you follow our Research Digest, you have likely seen a variety of articles across  a wide range of topics each month, changing from month  to month. In curating our June Digest, we noticed an unusual number of published studies about parks: use of parks, parks and crime, physical activity in parks, and, interestingly, willingness to pay for parks. Given the important role parks play in the health and well-being of our youngest to most senior community members, we've decided to highlight park-related studies in this issue. We hope you enjoy and learn from them, as well as from the other studies featured this month.

Sincerely,
Cathy Jordan, PhD, LP
Consulting Research Director 
Children & Nature Network
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Grandparents And Grandchildren Having Fun On Walk In Park

[Urban Park/Greenspace Design & Use]
Park users U1are willing to pay for parks, as they highly value them for the physical, mental, and social benefits they provide
This research assessed park users' perceptions of benefits they received from parks and the monetary value they placed on parks.  Almost all participants considered parks to be at least as important as other local services and were willing to pay higher amounts to keep parks. These findings provide evidence of the economic value people place on parks as a highly-appreciated community resource.  Henderson-Wilson, et al. 2017. Perceived health benefits and willingness to pay for parks by park users: Quantitative and qualitative research Access study
Incorporating U2Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) into traditional urban greening practices may optimize reductions in fear of crime
In this experimental study, participants reported their fear of crime regarding one of three randomly-assigned images of an urban lot: a disorderly lot, a traditionally greened lot, and a lot meeting the standards of Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED).  Participants who viewed the CPTED lot reported lower levels of fear of crime than other participants. De Biasi, 2017. Transforming vacant lots: Investigating an alternative approach to reducing fear of crime    Access study
Spatial, U3temporal and neighborhood dynamics influence greenspace crime
Five data sets focusing on crime incidence, land use, and census data were used to examine greenspace crime in Brisbane, Australia.  Greenspace amenities, neighborhood social composition, and the presence of proximate crime generators (e.g., places that sell alcohol) influenced the frequency and timing of greenspace crime.  This research can be used to guide greenspace crime prevention initiatives. |  Kimpton, Corcoran, & Wickes, 2017. Greenspace and crime: An analysis of greenspace types, neighboring composition, and the temporal dimensions of crime.   Access study
Closeness U4to urban green space is related to higher frequency of physical activity and less screen time for children but not for teens
Does closeness to green space influence the activity levels and health status of children?  This question, along with screen-time related concerns, was addressed by research conducted in Turkey.  While there were age- and sex-related differences, overall findings indicated that access to urban green space can promote the physical activity and health of children. |  Akpinar, 2017. Urban green spaces for children: A cross-sectional study of associations with distance, physical activity, screen time, general health, and overweight.     Access study
Walking U5loops in parks may be an effective way to increase population level physical activity
Data from the National Study of Neighborhood Parks indicates that parks with walking loops had 80% more users than parks without walking loops.  Levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were also higher in the parks with walking loops. The additional park use and park-based physical activity occurred not just on the walking loops but throughout the park. |  Akpinar, 2017. Urban green spaces for children: A cross-sectional study of associations with distance, physical activity, screen time, general health, and overweight.     Access study
Children's U6use of urban green spaces is strongly linked to parents' attitudes and characteristics of the physical settings
This study investigated children's outdoor leisure trends and the driving forces that influence the use of urban green spaces, particularly parks and playgrounds.  Data collected from children and parents in Turkey revealed three primary factors affecting parents' influence on their children's use of green spaces: benefits of spending time outdoors, safety concerns and design characteristics. | Kaymaz, Oguz, & Cengiz-Hergul, 2017. Factors influencing children's use of urban green spaces .     Access study
Assessing U7psychological factors affecting urban park use may be an effective approach to increasing use of existing parks
This review of the literature focused on psychological factors affecting urban park use and methods for measuring them.  Quality of facilities and activities was significantly associated with park use in many of the studies. The report includes a conceptual framework that planners might use for more accurately assessing the psychological factors influencing people's use of parks.  Park, 2017. Psychological park accessibility: A systematic literature review of perceptual components affecting park use.    
Adolescents U8prefer parks with adventurous and challenging equipment, free of rubbish and graffiti
This study was based on the premise that knowing and responding to adolescents' preferences for park features may increase their park visitation and promote a more physically active lifestyle.  Responses to an online survey indicated that park features most preferred by adolescents include parks free of rubbish and graffiti, with playground slides, swings, walking paths, and especially tree-lined paths. |  Veitch et al. 2017. Park attributes that encourage park visitation among adolescents: A conjoint analysis.     Access study



[ Biophilia/Connection with Nature ]
Parental b1characteristics and attitudes predict children's connection with nature and outdoor activities
Data from biophilia interviews linked with family and environmental factors indicated that the importance parents placed on children's outdoor and nature connection was a significant predictor of their preschool children's biophilia (affinity for nature).  Children of parents with less education and lower income tended to have lower biophilic scores. |  Ahmetoglu, 2017. The contributions of familial and environmental factors to children's connection with nature and outdoor activities .   Access study
Education b2based on natural sustainability highlights the non-dual relation between the self and the rest of the natural world
This theoretical article presents "no-self" as a sustainable approach for living in nature and as a therapy for moving beyond an egocentric way of relating to nature. This approach is referred to as "natural sustainability" and is based on the idea that all things (including humans and the rest of nature) are interdependent. Educationally, this requires students to become emotionally engaged with nature. |  Wang, 2017. No-self, natural sustainability and education for sustainable development.    Access study
 [ Crime & Fear of Crime ]
Incorporating c1Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) into traditional urban greening practices may optimize reductions in fear of crime
In this experimental study, participants reported their fear of crime regarding one of three randomly-assigned images of an urban lot: a disorderly lot, a traditionally greened lot, and a lot meeting the standards of Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED).  Participants who viewed the CPTED lot reported lower levels of fear of crime than other participants. |  De Biasi, 2017. Transforming vacant lots: Investigating an alternative approach to reducing fear of crime.   Access Study
Spatial, temporal c2and neighborhood dynamics influence greenspace crime
Five data sets focusing on crime incidence, land use, and census data were used to examine greenspace crime in Brisbane, Australia. Greenspace amenities, neighborhood social composition, and the presence of proximate crime generators (e.g., places that sell alcohol) influenced the frequency and timing of greenspace crime. This research can be used to guide greenspace crime prevention initiatives. | Kimpton, Corcoran, & Wickes, 2017. Greenspace and crime: An analysis of greenspace types, neighboring composition, and the temporal dimensions of crime.   
Community c3greening did not show a reduction in crime in New Haven, CT
This quasi-experimental study compared the crime rates of 300 community-led tree-planting sites with 893 control sites over a 12-year period.  With community-greening, volunteers versus government agencies determine greening initiatives.  While this study did not indicate that community greening was associated with crime reduction, such efforts offer many other social and environmental benefits. | Locke et al. 2017. Did community greening reduce crime? Evidence from Hew Haven, CT, 1996-2007.     Access Study
 [ Education for Sustainability  ]
Children's e1ideas about sustainability are developed through experiential, investigative, sensorial and place-oriented ways of learning
Sixteen Australian children from six different sustainability-active schools participated as co-researchers in a study investigating their perspectives of sustainability.  The children expressed strongly-conceptualized ideas about sustainability, which they developed through interactions with both human and more-than-human entities in diverse environments (e.g., gardens, wetlands, local parks, etc.). | 
Green, 2017. 'If there's no sustainability our future will get wrecked': Exploring children's perspectives of sustainability.
 
 
   Access Study
Education e2based on natural sustainability highlights the non-dual relation between the self and the rest of the natural world

This theoretical article presents "no-self" as a sustainable approach for living in nature and as a therapy for moving beyond an egocentric way of relating to nature.  This approach is referred to as "natural sustainability" and is based on the idea that all things (including humans and the rest of nature) are interdependent.  Educationally, this requires students to become emotionally engaged with nature. |  Wang, 2017. No-self, natural sustainability and education for sustainable development.     Access study
 [ Green Schoolyards and Gardens  ]
Children's gs1participation in the planning and management of school ground greening influences outcomes
This case study investigated the outcomes of children's participation in school ground greening from the children's own perspectives.  Green design alone was not enough to promote participatory learning activities in primary school children.  Children need to be involved in all phases of school ground greening for them to fully appreciate and benefit from the experience. |  Jansson, Martensson, & Gunnarsson, 2017. The meaning of participation in school ground greening: A study from project to everyday setting.     Access study
School gs2gardens are used more for academic instruction than for school nutrition programs
Thirty-seven educators representing 27 schools participated in a study focusing on how they used a school garden after completing a school-based gardening training program.  Over 60% of the gardens had been sustained for at least a year, and over 70% of the teachers used the garden during class time.  The gardens were generally not integrated with school-wide programs, especially in the cafeteria. |  Taylor et al. 2017. Assessing a school gardening program as an integrated component of a pilot farm-to-school initiative based in South Carolina  
 [ Mental Health ]
The psychological mh1health of rural children is associated with housing quality but not with neighborhood conditions, including access to nature
This longitudinal study collected data four times over a 15-year period on the psychological health of 341 children living in rural or small-town neighborhoods.  Findings indicated that poor housing quality during development was related to less positive psychological health, but poorer neighborhood conditions, including access to nature, seemed to have little relation to psychological health. |  Rollings, et al. (2017). Housing and neighborhood physical quality: Children's mental health and motivation.    Access study
 [ Physical Activity  ]
Closeness pa1to urban green space is related to higher frequency of physical activity and less screen time for children but not for teens
Does closeness to green space influence the activity levels and health status of children?  This question, along with screen-time related concerns, was addressed by research conducted in Aydin, Turkey.  While there were age- and sex-related differences, overall findings indicated that access to urban green space can promote the physical activity and health of children. |  Akpinar, 2017. Urban green spaces for children: A cross-sectional study of associations with distance, physical activity, screen time, general health, and overweight.   Access study
Walking pa2loops in parks may be an effective way to increase population level physical activity
Data from the National Study of Neighborhood Parks indicates that parks with walking loops had 80% more users than parks without walking loops.  Levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were also higher in the parks with walking loops. The additional park use and park-based physical activity occurred not just on the walking loops but throughout the park. |  Cohen et al. 2017. The prevalence and use of walking loops in neighborhood parks: A national study.  
Adolescents pa3prefer parks with adventurous and challenging equipment and free of rubbish and graffiti
This study was based on the premise that knowing and responding to adolescents' preferences for park features may increase their park visitation and promote a more physically active lifestyle.  Responses to an online survey indicated that park features most preferred by adolescents include parks free of rubbish and graffiti, with playground slides, swings, walking paths, and especially tree-lined paths. |  Veitch et al. 2017. Park attributes that encourage park visitation among adolescents: A conjoint analysis.   Access study
 [ Play/Nature Play  ]
The existing np1definition and characteristics of risky play may not be useful for one-year-olds
This observational study explored the occurrence and characteristics of risky play of one- through three-year-old children attending five different Norwegian preschools. The risky play of the one-year-olds tended to be brief and solitary compared to the two- and three-year-olds. New categories and an adapted definition of risky play are proposed for one-year-old children.   Kleppe, Melhuish, & Sandseter, 2017. Identifying and characterizing risky play in the age one-to-three years.   Access study
Nature play np2program provided families with enriched connections with each other and with nature
Formative evaluation results of a nature play program yielded three major outcome categories: enhanced interpersonal relationships, emotional wellness of parents and children, and connections to nature.  Parents' increased awareness of the value of spending time in nature with their children prompted nature play beyond the program. | 
Ward, Goldingay, & Parson, 2017. Evaluating a supported nature play programme, parents' perspectives
.
  Access study
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