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 Wearing talis and tefillin on Tisha B'av
The custom is to refrain from wearing talis and tefillin when davening shacharis on Tisha B'av morning. This is to remember the Medrash that says that Hashem, kaveyachol, tore His talis and removed His tefillin at the time of the churban. The talis and tefillin are worn during mincha instead. Tzitizis are worn as usual. There is a machlokes as to whether a beracha is to be said on the tzitzis in the morning (even if they were removed during night). Therefore, it is best to leave them on overnight in order to avoid any question about saying a beracha on them.
(סימן תקנה, סעיף א וס"ק א-ב; ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 3)


When to recite Havdalah if Tisha B'av falls on motzai Shabbos 

When Tisha B'av falls on Sunday, a choleh must recite Havdalah before he can eat. Some hold that he must use a drink other than wine or grape juice for havdalah (see siman 296 s"k 9-10 and the Mussaf there). Others allow the use of wine but require that the wine be given to a child to drink. If no child is available, the choleh may drink the wine himself. Generally, women do not recite Havdalah for themselves. The poskim discuss whether an infirm woman must find someone to recite havdalah for her or if she may recite it for herself. There is also discussion as to whether she may drink from the havdalah wine or if she must find a child to drink it.

(סימן תקנו, ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 5)



Hilchos Tefillin 32 (page 97)
מאמצע סעיף כג אבל אם היא עד אמצע סעיף כה או שהיתה

Filling in a Space Between the Letters of a Word
Necessary Care When Enlarging a Letter After it has Been Written
Repairing Invalid Letters and the Issue of K'sidron

Filling in a space between the letters of a word 

It is permissible to erase an extra letter in the middle of a parsha. But if the erasure would leave a gap in the middle of a word so that it looks like two words, the parsha is pasul. In some cases it is possible to solve the problem by lengthening the top/base of a preceding letter (beis, chaf, ­reish, etc.) or thickening the wall/leg of the following letter. Care must be taken not to alter the form of the letter in doing so.

(סעיף כג וס"ק קיב)




Necessary care when enlarging a letter after it has been written 

A sofer who enlarges a letter after it was written must be careful to constantly maintain the form of the letter. The proper way to elongate a chaf, for example, is to stretch the top and base little by little in even amounts so that one side is never noticeably longer than the other. If one side would be stretched longer than the other, the os would lose its form.  Similarly, a sofer should start from the bottom when thickening the wall/leg of a reish; if he widens the top first, the letter could look like a daled.

(ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 154-155)

Repairing invalid letters and the issue of k'sidron

We have already learned that each parsha of the tefillin must be written in the same order it appears in the Torah. There can be a concern of k'sidron (writing out of order) in cases where an os has to be rewritten because it lost its tzura, or where an os has to have its tzura altered to make a correction (e.g. chok tochos). If the os did not lose its tzura, a correction done for k'siva tama is not a problem of k'sidron.

(סעיף כה וס"ק קיד; ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 157)





  • The sofer must pay careful attention to the proper spelling of words and formation of letters as handed down through the mesora. Improperly formed, missing or extra letters will disqualify the parsha.

  • An extra letter or word can be removed to kasher a parsha if the erasure does not create a space equal to nine letters in width.

  • The ink on a freshly dipped pen cannot be used for writing any letter of Hashem's name. Too much ink on the nib can ruin whichever letter is being written.





  • What constitutes k'sidron

  • K'sidron when repairing broken letters

  • Which cracks can be repaired?