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Hilchos Kriyas Shema 59 (page 183)
מתחילת סימן נט עד סעיף ג


Changing the Conclusion of a Beracha
Correcting a Beracha Within the Span of Toch Kdei Dibur
"The Conclusion Determines All"

Changing the conclusion of a beracha 
Someone who concluded the final words of a beracha in error and immediately corrected himself has fulfilled his obligation. For example, if instead of saying yotzer ohr he said ma'ariv aravim but immediately added yotzer ohr, he has fulfilled his obligation.  The same is true for someone who said borei minei mezonos instead of shehakol nehiyeh b'dvaro but immediately added shehakol. If the person paused longer than kdei dibur (see below), however, the beracha is invalid. He should make the bracha again, even if he was using the extra time to decide how to correct his mistake and even if he already began a different beracha.
( סעיף ב, ס"ק ו-ז, וביה"ל ד"ה ונזכר וד"ה אם; ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 1-3)
Correcting a beracha within the span of toch kdei dibur
The poskim debatewhether toch kdei dibur is the span of time it takes to say three or four words. The Mishna Berura concludes that it is the time of three words. Even in a case where the beracha would not need to be repeated because of a wrong conclusion (e.g. if on Friday night someone said shomer amo Yisrael instead of haporeis at the conclusion of the beracha of Hashkiveinu), it is worthwhile to correct the conclusion after a span as long as four words.
( ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 1; וראה שם, 5)

"The conclusion determines all"
The poskim discuss whether someone who erred while reciting a 'long beracha' (a beracha that concludes with " baruch atah Hashem..." -- e.g. the berachos of kriyas Shema, Shemone Esrei and Al Hamichya) must repeat the beracha. According to some poskim including the Mechaber, as long as the main focus was mentioned either at the beginning or middle of the beracha and the conclusion was recited properly, the beracha is valid. Other poskim including the Gra hold that everything is determined by the conclusion of the beracha; as long as that part was recited correctly, the beracha is valid.
( סעיף ב, ס"ק ג, ד ו־ח, וביה"ל ד"ה ולא; ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 6)



 
  • Someone who was unable to recite kriyas Shema in the evening may recite it until sunrise. He may also recite the berachos said during Ma'ariv except for the beracha of Hashkivaeinu.
  • Someone who was unable to recite Shema at the proper time may still recite it with the berachos until the end of the fourth seasonal hour of the day (the end of zman tefilla). This reading is too late to fulfill the mitzva of Shema.
  • According to some authorities, in addition to the basic mitzva there is also an aspect of davening to reading Shema. Accordingly, someone who did not recite either the day or night Shema can recite it later in the day to compensate for the lost tefilla, even though it is too late to fulfill the mitzva of Shema.





  • Fulfilling the obligation of a beracha through hearing

  • Listening to a beracha while distracted

  • Reciting the Kedusha of birchas Yotzer Ohr

 







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PLEASE NOTE:  The information in this email is for learning purposes only. Please review the Mishna Berura and Biurim U'Musafim before making a halachic decision. Hebrew words are occasionally transliterated to enable a smoother reading of the text. Common Ashkenazi pronunciation is generally used in these cases.