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Acceptable Foods for Mishloach Manos
The mishloach manos foods must be ready to eat, although some poskim permit raw meat. According to many poskim, foods that cannot be used alone are not acceptable - i.e. tea leaves, spices, etc. The poskim discuss whether foods that the recipient cannot eat for health reasons (e.g. he is allergic to them) can be used to fulfill the mitzva. Water (carbonated water included) is not acceptable.

Reading the Megilah for Others
Someone who already fulfilled his obligation to read the Megilah and is reading on behalf of others is permitted to recite the berachos on their behalf. According to some poskim, when the reading is for an individual it is preferable that the individual recite the berachos. In order to gain the benefit of rov am, someone who will read for individuals should first hear the Megilah in shul or should have in mind not to fulfill his obligation until he hears it later in shul.

 Hilchos Tefilla 107-108 (page 269)
  מסעיף ג עד סימן קח סעיף ב

Compensating for Missed Tefillos
Compensating for Intentionally Missed Tefillos
Why the Present Tefilla Precedes the Makeup Tefilla

Compensating for missed tefillos
Someone who missed a tefilla- Shacharis, Mincha or Ma'ariv-because of forgetfulness, an error (e.g. he thought he already davened or he miscalculated the time remaining until the end of the zman), or an ones (e.g. he felt ill or became intoxicated, thinking that he would be sober before the end of the zman) can compensate by reciting the next tefilla twice. The first recitation fulfills the current obligation and the second one counts as a makeup tefilla.  The poskim discuss whether the makeup is regarded the same way as a tefilla that is recited at the correct time. The concept of a "makeup tefilla" only applies to Shemoneh Esrei. There is no compensation for other parts of davening like birchos kriyas Shema or pesukei d'zimra if they are missed. A woman who missed a tefilla should make it up with the next tefilla. Although women are not required to daven Ma'ariv, if a woman missed that tefilla she can make it up during the following Shacharis. Children should be taught to make up missed tefillos.
( סימן קח, סעיף א, ס"ק ב, ג ו־ו, ושעה"צ ס"ק א; ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 2, 3, 4 ו־8)
Compensating for intentionally missed tefillos
Generally, there is no replacement for intentionally skipped tefillos. Nevertheless, someone who chose not to daven because his mind was not settled or he wasn't able to wash his hands properly (even though it would have been correct to daven in those circumstances) may compensate for the missed tefillos. Someone who was involved with a communal project or something similar and was exempt from davening for the duration of zman tefilla does not need to make up the missed tefilla. He should, however, try to recite a voluntary tefilla-a tefilla with an addition-to compensate for the missed prayer. If someone who was unsure whether he davened (and who was therefore obligated to daven) neglected to do so within the appropriate time, it is questionable whether he must recite a makeup prayer. He is permitted to recite one if he wishes, and does not need to introduce an addition to it.
( סימן קח, ס"ק א-ב, וביה"ל ד"ה טעה; ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 1, 5, 7 ו־20)
Why the present tefilla precedes the makeup tefilla
The tefilla that a person is obligated to recite at a given time is recited first, and any makeup tefilla is recited afterwards. Chazal instituted makeup tefillos only for people who are already involved in davening. Someone who intended the first of the two tefillos to be the makeup must repeat itafter he completes the second tefilla (with which he intended to fulfill his current obligation).  For example, someone who missed Mincha and davened Ma'ariv twice, the first time as Mincha and the second time as Ma'ariv, must repeat the Mincha Shemoneh Esrei after his Ma'ariv Shemoneh Esrei. According to some poskim, this only applies if he somehow demonstrated that the first prayer was the makeup. An example of this would be someone who missed Mincha on Shabbos afternoon and ­davened Ma'ariv twice, but only included havdalah the second time. The halacha follows the first opinion, but it is proper to stipulate that if the repetition is not mandatory, it should be counted as a voluntary tefilla (which does not require an addition). Someone who davened a makeup tefilla after his currently required tefilla but then realized that he must repeat the first tefilla because of an omission (e.g. he omitted mashiv haruach) does not need to repeat the makeup tefilla.
( סימן קח, ס"ק ז ו־ט; ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 15)

  • Once someone davens, he may not repeat that tefilla as an obligation. Shemoneh Esrei corresponds to the daily korban Tamid which could be offered only once. It is, however, permissible to voluntarily repeat the tefilla by adding something new, just as it is possible to offer another korban voluntarily.
  • Voluntary tefillos are forbidden on Shabbos and Yom Tov just as voluntary korbanos are forbidden on those days. They cannot be recited for Mussaf (on Shabbos, Yom Tov, Rosh Chodesh and Chol Hamoed ), just as a korban Mussaf cannot be brought voluntarily.
  • Someone who is unsure whether he davened can repeat the prayer as a voluntary tefilla. Before beginning to daven, he should stipulate that this tefilla should fulfill his obligation if he is obligated or serve as a voluntary tefilla if he is not obligated.


  • Spacing the two tefillos

  • Reciting Ashrei before the makeup tefilla

  • Reciting a makeup tefilla after the zman of the present tefilla



PLEASE NOTE:  The information in this email is for learning purposes only. Please review the Mishna Berura and Biurim U'Musafim before making a halachic decision. Hebrew words are occasionally transliterated to enable a smoother reading of the text. Common Ashkenazi pronunciation is generally used in these cases.