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Hilchos Brachos 53 (page 166)
מאמצע סעיף יט ודווקא עד סעיף כב

A Chazan Who Hates a Congregant
When Should an Avel Not Serve as Chazan?
Why the Ba'al Koreh Receives the Aliyah of the Tochacha

A chazan who hates a congregant
The role of the chazan is to help the entire congregation to fulfill their obligations. A chazan who hates a member of the congregation and excludes him from his tefillos cannot represent the rest of the congregants either. There is a discussion in the poskim as to whether a ba'al koreh is disqualified if he hates and excludes another member of the tzibur.
( ס"ק נז; ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 64)
When should an avel not serve as chazan?
During the year following the passing of a parent, it is common practice for an avel to serve as chazan and recite kaddish. Leading the congregation in tefilla and reciting kaddish is a merit for the soul of the deceased and lifts it out of gehinom. Serving as chazan is of greater benefit to the soul than reciting kaddish. Nonetheless, only an avel who can read the tefillos and lead properly should serve as chazzan; if his tefillos are unclear or rushed, he should not.
( סעיף כ וס"ק נט ו־ס; ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 70)
Why the ba'al koreh receives the aliyah of the tochacha
If the ba'al koreh feels hostility towards a congregant, that person should not be called to the aliyos of the tochacha of parshios Bechukosai or Ki Savo. There is a concern that the ba'al koreh will intend for the curses to befall his enemy, putting him in sakana. If the enemy suspects that he will be called to the Torah, he should leave the shul at the conclusion of the previous aliyah and reenter only after someone else has been called to the Torah. If the enemy was called for the aliyah, some poskim advise him not go up but most poskim hold that he should accept the aliyah.
The popular custom today is for the ba'al koreh to take this aliyah for himself.
( סעיף כ וס"ק נט ו־ס; ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 70)


  • Someone other than the official chazan may not go to the amud without permission from the person in charge. Furthermore, one should hesitate to accept even when requested to serve as chazan.
  • The Acharonim instituted that the majority opinion or the town leaders should make all the decisions about the shul, the Rov, chazan, ba'al korei, etc.
  • A ger is permitted to recite the words "our G-d and the G-d of our fathers." Likewise, he may also say "the land that You gave to our fathers" in bentching. The words refer to Avrohom Avinu, who is considered the 'father' of gerim since he taught the non-Jewish world about G-d.

  • The requirement to appoint Rabbanim

  • Reckoning the individual's contribution to the communal coffers

  • The benefits of an offical chazan