1 678
Hilchos Tefila 89-90 (page 242)
מסעיף ח עד סימן צ סעיף ד

Davening Early Versus Davening in Transit While Seated
The Earliest Times for the Parts of Davening
Davening While Standing on a Raised Area

Davening early versus davening in transit while seated
Someone who must set out on a journey early and cannot wait until neitz to daven may daven before neitz. If the choices are davening at home before mesheyakir or sitting for davening while in transit, according to the Mechaber he should recite Shemoneh Esrei after the horizon lights up, and recite Shema and its berachos after mesheyakir. A second opinion holds that he should recite the complete davening in its correct order after mesheyakir, even if he ends up having to recite the tefillos seated or while walking. The minhag follows the second opinion.
( סימן פט, סעיף ח, ס"ק לט, מ ו־מב, וביה"ל ד"ה בשעת; ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 50)
The earliest times for the parts of davening
Someone who must daven before neitz should omit Kriyas Shema and its berachos and should not recite the beracha on tallis and tefillin prior to mesheyakir. If he recited those parts of the tefilla after alos but before misheyakir, he is yotzei b'dieved and should not repeat the berachos later. Birchos hashachar, with the exception of asher nosan l'sechvi, may be recited before alos. The parshios of the korbanos should be said during the day, but if that is not possible they can be recited before alos. Pesukei d'zimra (including the berachos) may be recited prior to mesheyakir, and according to some poskim, even prior to alos.
( סימן פט, ס"ק לט-מ; ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 47-49; ביה"ל סימן סא, סעיף א, ד"ה זמן)
Davening while standing on a raised area
It is forbidden to stand on any object (including a chair or stool) when Davening Shemoneh Esrei. Three reasons are given for this: 1) People do not find it easy to concentrate when they are afraid of falling. According to this reasoning, it should be forbidden to stand on anything of significant height. 2) Tefilla is like the avoda of the Beis Hamikdash, which the kohanim had to perform with their feet on the ground. 3) It is not proper to stand before a king on anything higher than three tefachim. According to this reasoning, even standing on elevated ground that is three tefachim high is a problem.
( סימן צ, סעיף א וס"ק א, ב ו־ו; ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 2, 4 ו־5; וראה שם, 1)

  • According to some poskim, once the horizon lights up it is forbidden for someone who typically davens alone to begin learning Torah, whether at home or at a shul that will not have a minyan.
  • It is forbidden to start a meal (i.e. bread or cake larger than an egg; intoxicating drinks) from a half an hour before dawn until after one dons tefillin, recites Shema, and davensShemoneh Esrei.
  • After alos, it is forbidden to enter a bathhouse to bathe until one has davened. The contemporary poskim discuss whether modern showers are included in the prohibition.

  • Davening in a closed area versus an open area

  • Shul windows

  • Davening outside a shul



PLEASE NOTE:  The information in this email is for learning purposes only. Please review the Mishna Berura and Biurim U'Musafim before making a halachic decision. Hebrew words are occasionally transliterated to enable a smoother reading of the text. Common Ashkenazi pronunciation is generally used in these cases.