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Someone who forgot to count sefira
The Mechaber writes that someone who neglected to count the omer for one full day may not continue counting the rest of the omer with a beracha. However, someone who is not sure if he counted may continue counting with a beracha. Someone who realized during bein hashemashos that he has not yet counted should count then, because it is possible that it is still part of the previous day. But he should count without a beracha, since it is also possible that it is already the next day. There is a machlokes among the poskim as to whether he may continue counting future nights with a beracha. Rav Shlomo Zalman sides with those who say he cannot continue to count with a beracha. However, many contemporary poskim hold that he may continue counting with a beracha. (According to Rav Elyashiv, this is only the case if he remembers to count within 13.5 minutes after shkia.  According to the Or Ltzion, he has up to 25 minutes after shkia to rectify the situation.) (סעיף ח; ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 72)

 Hilchos Tefilla 130 (page 21)
 מסעיף ב עד סימן קלא

The Tefilla of Ribono Shel Olam
Who May recite Ribono Shel Olam
Why Daven During Birkas Kohanim?

The tefilla of Ribono Shel Olam
Someone who had a dream and cannot determine whether the intended message is a good one or a bad one can remedy the dream by reciting the prayer Ribono Shel Olam (printed in the siddurim) while the kohanim are drawing out the final syllables of the seven key words (see siman 128:45). The tefilla is recited once during each of the three berachos of birkas kohanim. There is a custom to replace the third recitation with Yehi Ratzon (also printed in the siddurim). The Mishna Berura prefers reciting Ribono Shel Olam for the third time instead, because the length of the Yehi Ratzon might be considered a hefseik in the beracha. One should aim to complete his tefilla at the same time as the kohanim conclude their berachos so that the congregation's response of Amein to the beracha will be like a response to his request. If he finishes early, he should add the tefilla Adir Bamorom (printed in the siddurim).  Some have the custom of reciting Adir Bamorom after every birkas kohanim. At times or places where the kohanim do not recite the beracha, these tefillos can be said while the chazan recites the beracha of Sim Shalom.
( סימן קל, סעיף א, וס"ק ב-ז ו־ט; ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 4 ו־7)
Who may recite Ribono Shel Olam
Women can also recite these tefillos to remedy their dreams. Kohanim can rectify their dreams by thinking about their own lives while saying the beracha. The chazan (or anyone else who is reading to the kohanim - e.g. if the chazan is a kohein) should not recite these tefillos because they may distract or confuse him. He may recite the tefillos while the kohanim are saying the final word of the beracha - shalom. Someone davening Shemoneh Esrei along with the chazan cannot interrupt his tefilla to recite these prayers.
( סימן קל, ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 1-2)
Why daven during birkas kohanim
An allusion to reciting these tefillos during birkas kohanim can be found in the pasuk " For this is the bed of Shlomo, sixty powerful men surround it...because the fear of night." The 'sixty powerful men' of this pasuk allude to the sixty letters found in the pesukim of birkas kohanim. All of the " men" (letters) represent names of Hashem and bear swords to fight the fear [of bad dreams at] night. An additional connection is that birkas kohanim is similar to a prophecy, and a dream is a minor form of prophecy. A bad dream can be annulled by the prophecy of birkas kohanim which is sixty times greater. Another reason why tefillos about dreams are said at that time is because people are attentive during birkas kohanim, and the extra kavana helps to nullify a bad dream.
( ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 3)

  • The Torah says "you should consecrate [the kohein]," which teaches that the kohein should be given special privileges, like having the first aliya or leading the bentching.
  • Inappropriate use of the kohein's service is akin to desecrating kodshim. A kohein may waive the honor due him. According to some poskim, this is permissible only if the kohein derives some benefit from the use of his services (e.g. salary).  Unpaid service, however, is a disgrace to the kohein and the kohein should refuse it.
  • In ancient times, it was common to drink wine throughout the day and people often became intoxicated during the day. Chazal forbade birkas kohanim during Mincha to prevent drunken kohanim from reciting the blessing.


  • Covering one's face for tachanun

  • Three reasons for covering the face

  • Interrupting between Shemoneh Esrei and tachanun



PLEASE NOTE:  The information in this email is for learning purposes only. Please review the Mishna Berura and Biurim U'Musafim before making a halachic decision. Hebrew words are occasionally transliterated to enable a smoother reading of the text. Common Ashkenazi pronunciation is generally used in these cases.