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 Hilchos Tefilla 125-126 (page 300)
  מאמצע הסעיף וכן מנענעים עד סימן קכו אמצע הסעיף ואם היה

May a Heretic Serve as Chazan?
If the Chazan is Unable to Continue
Bouncing on One's Toes During Kedusha

May a heretic serve as chazan?
Someone who denies any of the tenets of Judaism (e.g. Heavenly origin of the Torah, reward and punishment, Moshiach, resurrection of the dead) cannot serve as a chazan. If such a person leads the congregation, he should be removed even in the middle of chazaras hashatz, and it is forbidden to respond Amein to his berachos. If the chazan skips the beracha of V'lamalshinim and does not immediately correct himself, he is suspect of being a denier who purposely skipped the beracha to avoid cursing himself. Such a person, even if previously thought to be a tzaddik, should be removed from the amud and his replacement should begin from the beracha of V'lamalshinim. He does not need to be removed if he skipped other berachos at the same time.
( סימן קכו, סעיף א, ס"ק ה, וביה"ל ד"ה ברכת וד"ה מסלקין)
If the chazan is unable to continue
If the chazan became weary in middle of chazaras hashatz, someone else should take over. If it happened in the middle berachos, the replacement should begin where the first one left off. If he left off in the middle of a beracha, the replacement should start at the beginning of the beracha. If the problem occurred on a day when piyutim are recited (e.g. Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur), the piyutim do not need to be repeated. According to one contemporary posek, if the chazan who started chazaras hashatz has to stop during the piyutim following kedusha in the third beracha, the replacement should continue with the remaining piyutim but the original chazan should recite the conclusion of the beracha.
( סימן קכו, סעיף ב וס"ק ח-י; וראה ביה"ל ד"ה ואם; ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 6)
Bouncing on one's toes during kedusha
The Medrash records a custom of people bouncing on their toes when reciting the words kodosh, kodosh, kodosh in kedusha. To fulfill this custom, the body, from the heels up, should be lifted as if to emulate a flying malach, as it says "with two [of his wings] he flies." According to the Acharonim, this should also be done for the pesukim of Baruch and Yimloch. The poskim discuss whether a person should bounce each time he says the word kodosh or just once when starting the pasuk and whether someone listening to kedusha while davening Shemoneh Esrei should bounce.
( סימן קכה, סעיף ב וס"ק ז-ח; ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 15)

  • The mitzva to recite kedusha is of Rabbinic origin, but fulfills the Biblical mitzva to sanctify Hashem's name, based on the pasuk "I will be sanctified through the sons of Israel."
  • The entire congregation should recite the pesukim of kedusha at the same time. One can join and be considered as having recited it with the tzibur as long as some members of the congregation are still saying the pesukim.
  • Someone davening with a minyan whose nusach is different than his is required to recite kedusha according to the shul's custom. If he began with his regular nusach, he should switch, even if he is partway through. Some poskim permit reciting it in one's regular nusach if one does so quietly.

  • When a chazan must repeat Shemoneh Esrei

  • Birkas kohanim when the chazan repeats his tefilla.

  • Informing a kohen about a dead body during Shemoneh Esrei



PLEASE NOTE:  The information in this email is for learning purposes only. Please review the Mishna Berura and Biurim U'Musafim before making a halachic decision. Hebrew words are occasionally transliterated to enable a smoother reading of the text. Common Ashkenazi pronunciation is generally used in these cases.