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Lighting Twenty Amos Above Ground
Ideally, the ner Chanuka should be placed between three and ten tefachim off the ground. If it was placed between ten tefachim and twenty amos, the mitzva has been fulfilled. If it was placed above twenty amos, however, the obligation is not fulfilled. People passing by would not easily notice the burning candles at such a height, and the criterion of persumei nissa is thus not met. According to Rav Shlomo Zalman, in a cluster of tall apartment buildings it is preferable for the residents of the upper floors to put their menoros in the doorway leading to the hall (or stairwell) rather than in the window. The residents of the nearby buildings who can see the candles do not play the same role as passersby on the street. Rav Nissim Karelitz adds that in this instance, the menorah should be placed in a way that it is visible to those inside the apartment as well as those outside. According to Rav Sheinberg, the menorah should be put in the window because the persumei nisa effect will be greater there. Rav Wosner advises that since there is minimal persumei nisa to those on the street at the same time as some persumei nisa to the surrounding buildings, the custom of lighting in the window should be upheld.
[ שו"ע תרעא, ו, ומשנ"ב כח; ביאורים ומוספים 'דרשו', 56 ]

 Hilchos Kriyas Shema 63 (page 195)
 מתחילת סימן סד עד תחילת סימן סה

Reciting K'riyas Shema Out Of Order
How To Make Up a Skipped Word Of K'riyas Shema
Losing One's Place During K'riyas Shema

Reciting K'riyas Shema out of order
From  the Torah's words , " v'hayu had'vorim ha'eileh" (and these words shall be) regarding Shema, Chazal derive that K'riyas Shema must be recited in order. This means that in each parshah, the words must be read in the same order that they appear in the Torah. If words or verses were skipped and the following verses were read, one need not begin the entire parshah anew; it is sufficient to begin rereading in proper order from the first skipped verse. The separate parshiyos should be recited in the order that they are arranged in K'riyas Shema. However, if they were read in a different order, it is b'dieved valid (although some question this).
( סימן סד, סעיף א, ס"ק א-ב, וביה"ל ד"ה במה וד"ה אף)
How to make up a skipped word of K'riyas Shema
If a verse was skipped during K'riyas Shema, or if it was improperly pronounced and needs to be repeated, one must return to that verse and repeat from there until the end of the parsha. If one knows that he skipped but isn't certain which verse, he must repeat from the beginning of that parshah. If one skipped a word or even a single letter in middle of a verse, that begins a new phrase, there are poskim who permit repeating merely from that phrase; others require returning to the beginning of that verse. If the skipped word or letter is in middle of a phrase, everyone requires repeating from the beginning of the verse.
( סעיף ב וס"ק ה-ו; ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 2)

Losing one's place during K'riyas Shema
One who finds himself reciting the phrase " uch'savtam al mezuzos beisecha u'visharecha" which appear both at the end of the first parshah of K'riyas Shema and in middle of the second parshah, and is uncertain which parshah he is reciting, should continue with the beginning of the second parshah. However, if he finds himself automatically continuing with the words " lema'an yirbu y'meichem" which appear in the second parshah, he may assume that he was holding there and continue. However, if one is reciting Shema along with the congregation, and they are all reciting together in unison, he probably is up to the same place they are and should continue along with them.
( סעיף ד וס"ק י-יא ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 6)

  • If the first verse of K'riyas Shema was recited without kavana, it needs to be repeated from the beginning.
  • While reciting the first parshah of K'riyas Shema it is forbidden to motion or signal, even for a mitzvah purpose. Poskim disagree whether this applies even if one pauses his recitation.
  • K'riyas Shema consists of three parshiyos: Shema, V'haya im shamo'a, and Vayomer. The Rishonim disagree which portions of the first two parshiyos are m'doraisa.

  • Length of time permitted to pause during K'riyas Shema

  • If K'riyas Shema was interrupted with too long a pause

  • If Shemoneh Esrei was interrupted with too long a pause



PLEASE NOTE:  The information in this email is for learning purposes only. Please review the Mishna Berura and Biurim U'Musafim before making a halachic decision. Hebrew words are occasionally transliterated to enable a smoother reading of the text. Common Ashkenazi pronunciation is generally used in these cases.