1 678

Meir Simcha Upon his Bris 
by Binyomin and Brochi Radner


                       Elter Zayde Yosef Meir ben Yitzchok


 Music during the three weeks  

Dancing is generally forbidden during the Three Weeks. The poskim write that music, whether live or recorded, is forbidden during these weeks. There is a machlokes as to whether recorded vocal music is considered music and forbidden. Likewise, there is discussion among the poskim as to whether singing is permitted during this period. Some do not allow any singing and others permit singing that does not create excessive joy or cause dancing. A third opinion holds that although singing is permissible, it is proper to avoid it.

(ס"ק טז; ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 29)



Hilchos Tefillin 32 (page 90)
מאמצע הסעיף הא דמכשרינן עד סעיף יז

Mukaf Gevil
When Two Letters Touch
A Hole or the Edge of the Klaf


Mukaf gevil

There are two approaches to applying the rule of mukaf gevil. According to the first approach, the concern is that a letter should not touch another letter - even if both were formed properly initially and only became connected later [e.g. if a drip of ink fell on them]. According to the second approach, not only is it a problem for a letter to touch another letter, but also for it to abut against a hole or the edge of the klaf. This second approach, however, is only applied if the letter was initially written that way. The poskim discuss the extent to which the two approaches disagree with one another (see next passage).

(סעיף טז, ס"ק נד, וביה"ל ד"ה כשנכתב וד"ה ואחר כך)


When two letters touch

Two letters that touched each other at the time they were formed (as long as the sofer had not yet completed the letters by lifting his right hand) are pasul since they are not mukaf gevil (surrounded by parchment). If the letters touched at some point after the sofer completed them, some poskim hold that they are treated as pasul in case the halacha follows the first approach to mukaf gevil above. A second opinion holds that they are undoubtedly pasul.

(סעיף טז, ס"ק נד ו־נז, וביה"ל ד"ה כשנכתב וד"ה ואחר כך; ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 93)

A hole on the edge of the klaf

As stated earlier, a letter is pasul if it abutted a hole or the edge of the klaf at the time when it was written. However, if at the time of writing it was surrounded by parchment and only afterwards the klaf tore or a hole formed, it remains kosher. According to many poskim, if a hole that touches two letters developed after the writing, it is treated like an ink connection as described in the previous section. Other poskim are stringent. The Mishna Berura allows for leniencies in certain circumstances.

(סעיף טז, ס"ק נד, נז ו־נט, וביה"ל ד"ה ואחר כך; ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 94)






  • A child may be asked to identify a vav or zayin whose lower leg was partially erased or separated by a crack or hole.
  • A non-proficient child is defined as one who can recognize a letter but not understand what he is reading. According to many Acharonim, the preceding and succeeding words should be covered.
  • If part of a letter was erased or cracked and the remaining part is clearly not the original letter, it is pasul even if a child reads it correctly.




  • Chok tochos

  • Chok tochos are on a previously written letter

  • Writing one letter on top of another