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 Hilchos Tefilla 127 (page 302)
  מתחילת סימן קכז עד סימן קכח

Modim D'rabonon
Bowing for Modim D'rabonon
The Final Beracha of Shemoneh Esrei

Modim d'rabonon
Chazal mandated that the tzibur should recite modim d'rabonon while the chazan recites modim in his repetition. The chazan can represent the people when reciting the requests found in the other berachos of Shemoneh Esrei, but since Modim is an expression of thanks, it should be done in person.  All people present in the shul, even those not davening, should join in reciting modim d'rabonon. People who are standing outside do not need to join.
( סעיף א; ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 2)

Bowing for modim d'rabonon
When the chazan reaches modim, everyone present in shul should bow with him and recite modim d'rabonon. When bowing, one should not bow so low that his head is below his waist. According to some poskim, it is not necessary to do a proper bow; one can simply nod his head. According to the Rama, one should remain bowed for the entire recitation. A variation of this opinion is that one should remain slightly bowed throughout, but bow more deeply at the beginning and end. According to the Mechaber, one should bow once at the beginning and again at the end. According to the Gra, it is proper to straighten out when reciting the words "for you are our G-d" and it is not necessary to bow at the end.
( סעיף א, ס"ק ה, וביה"ל ד"ה ויש וד"ה הכל; ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 7)
The final beracha of Shemoneh Esrei
According to the Arizal, Sim Shalom is always the final beracha of Shemoneh Esrei. According to nusach Ashkenaz, Sim Shalom is recited only during those tefillos eligible for birkas kohanim (i.e. S­hacharis, Musaf, and mincha on a ta'anis tzibur). Shalom Rov is said during all other tefillos. According to the Rama -- and this is the prevalent custom in Eretz Yisrael -- Sim Shalom is recited at Mincha on Shabbos because it praises Hashem for giving us the Torah which is read on that occasion. One fulfills his obligation if he says Sim Shalom instead of Shalom Rov or vice versa.
( סעיף ב וס"ק יב-יג; ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 14)

  • If a chazan made a mistake in his personal Shemoneh Esrei which requires him to repeat the tefilla, he may consider chazaras hashatz as the makeup tefilla.
  • If the chazan must repeat chazaras hashatz,kedusha is recited the second time as well. The poskim discuss whether birkas kohanim is repeated.
  • If people become aware that there is a dead body in a room where a kohein is daveningShemoneh Esrei, it is incumbent on them to inform him immediately.

  • The mitzva of birkas kohanim

  • Using the words of birkas kohanim for other occasions

  • A minyan  for birkas kohanim


PLEASE NOTE:  The information in this email is for learning purposes only. Please review the Mishna Berura and Biurim U'Musafim before making a halachic decision. Hebrew words are occasionally transliterated to enable a smoother reading of the text. Common Ashkenazi pronunciation is generally used in these cases.