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Hilchos Tefillin 47 (page 154)
מסעיף יג עד תחילת סימן מח


Reciting Birchos Hashachar in the Middle of the Night
When Does Someone Who Rises in Middle of the Night to Study Recite Birchos HaTorah?
Why Women Recite Birchos HaTorah

Reciting Birchos Hashachar in the middle of the night
All of Birchos Hashachar, with the exception of hanosein lasechvi vina, may be recited before dawn. If this beracha was recited before dawn, the obligation is fulfilled bedieved. Many poskim agree that if someone recites this beracha upon hearing a rooster crow after chatzos (midnight), the obligation is fulfilled l'chatchila. Prior to chatzos the beracha is in vain, even if a rooster crows. Someone who rises in middle of the night and plans to go back to sleep may recite all the berachos except E-lokai Neshama and Hama'avir Sheina. If these berachos were said, the obligation has been fulfilled bedieved. The parshios of korbanos and the Mishna of Eizehu Mekoman should wait for dawn, since the korbanos were offered only after dawn. They can be recited earlier if there will not be time to recite them later.
( סעיף יג, ס"ק ל-לב, וביה"ל המשכים קודם וד"ה מברך; ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 32)
When does someone who rises in the middle of the night to study recite Birchos HaTorah?
Someone who rises in middle of the night to study must recite Birchos HaTorah before beginning. If he returns to sleep, he does not repeat the berachos in the morning. (A second opinion holds that he should recite the berachos in the morning.) The poskim discuss whether someone who naps in his clothing with the intention of rising in the middle of the night and returning to sleep afterwards must recite Birchos HaTorah when he gets up to learn. (There is an opinion that he should recite an Aramaic version of the berachos.) Ideally, when reciting the berachos in the middle of the night he should bear in mind not to exempt the morning berachos.
( סעיף יג, ס"ק כט, וביה"ל ד"ה המשכים; ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 31)

Why women recite Birchos HaTorah
Although women are generally exempt from Torah study, the custom is for them to recite the berachos on the Torah. Several reasons are given for this practice: 1) Women are required to study the sections of the Torah that pertain to them and to recite Torah passages found in davening. 2) Women are not required to recite the berachos but do so anyway, just as they are exempt from mitzvos aseh shehazeman gromo but frequently perform those mitzvos with a beracha (see Rama siman 17:2). 3) Although women are exempt from the mitzva of studying Torah and do not need to recite a beracha on the mitzva, the study of Torah requires a beracha even when there is no mitzva to do so.
( סעיף יד וביה"ל ד"ה נשים; ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 33)




 
  • According to the Mechaber it is ideal, but not essential, to study Torah immediately following Birchos HaTorah. Most poskim, however, do require studying immediately without interruption.
  • There is a machlokes as to whether someone who slept by day must repeat Birchos HaTorah. While the custom is not to repeat the berachos, it is proper to have in mind to fulfill the obligation of Birchos HaTorah when reciting the beracha of Ahavas Olam during ma'ariv.
  • Someone who did not sleep at night should hear the berachos from someone else. According to some poskim, if the person had slept during the previous day he may recite the berachos even if he was awake all night.




  • Why the parshios of the korbanos are recited daily before Shacharis

  • Shukeling (undulating) when davening

  • Reciting pesukim by heart

 





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