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 Hilchos Kriyas Shema 68 (page 204)
 מתחילת סימן סח עד תחילת סימן סט

Switching From One Nusach to Another
What One is Required to Say According to the Congregation's Nusach
Possible Deviations From the Text of a Blessing Which May be Valid

Switching from one nusach to another
According to the teachings of Kabbalah there are twelve heavenly gateways for prayer and each has a separate nusach. The four basic common nuschaos are as follows: Ashkenaz, Sefard ( Arizal), Eidos Hamizrach ( Sefardim), and Teiman (Yemenite). It is generally prohibited to switch one's nusach to another. Some permit switching from nusach Sefard to Ashkenaz because the forefathers of most who pray with nusach Sefard originally prayed with nusach Ashkenaz, so this is considered returning to the original nusach. Others permit one to switch from nusach Ashkenaz to Sefard because Sefard is in accordance with the teachings of the Arizal.
( ס"ק ד; ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 6)

What one is required to say according to the congregation's nusach
When one prays in a congregation whose nusach differs from his own, there are various opinions regarding which portions of the prayers may be recited in his own nusach and which portions must conform to the nusach of the congregation. Generally, the portions recited silently may be recited in his own nusach and the portions recited aloud should conform to the congregation. Some poskim permit even the portions recited aloud to be in his own nusach and only require conforming with the congregation's nusach when reciting the responses for which a congregation is necessary. Others require any portion of the prayers which is permitted to be recited aloud to conform to the congregation's nusach even if he is reciting it silently. A shliyach tzibbur must recite chazoras hashatz (the chazzan's repetition) in the nusach of the congregation, and there are differing opinions regarding how he must pray his silent Shemoneh Esrei.
( ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 8)
Possible deviations from the text of a blessing which may be valid
The Rishonim write that since the precise text of most blessings does not appear in the Gemara, one fulfills his obligation bedieved even if some of the blessing was skipped. Most poskim require that both the opening " Boruch ata HaShem" and the closing " Boruch ata HaShem" (if the blessing contains both) must be recited properly in addition to the main topic of the text within the blessing. Some say that reciting the closing properly is sufficient even if everything else was skipped. Others say that even if the closing was skipped, if the opening was recited properly it is valid.
( ס"ק א; ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 1-2)

  • If one is in doubt whether he is obligated in a mitzvah d'oraisa or whether he has already fulfilled it he must perform it without a blessing.
  • There is a Torah obligation to mention yetziyas mitzrayim each day and night. M'drabonon this must be performed with reciting the third parsha of K'riyas Shema.
  • If one is uncertain whether he has recited K'riyas Shema and its blessings he must recite Birchos K'riyas Shema together with K'riyas Shema.

  • The necessary number of people praying to comprise a minyan

  • Whether individuals who already prayed privately may form a minyan

  • The minhag to repeat Bor'chu



PLEASE NOTE:  The information in this email is for learning purposes only. Please review the Mishna Berura and Biurim U'Musafim before making a halachic decision. Hebrew words are occasionally transliterated to enable a smoother reading of the text. Common Ashkenazi pronunciation is generally used in these cases.