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 Hilchos Kriyas Shema 69 (page 205)
  מתחילת סימן סט עד אמצע סעיף א ואפילו מי ששמע

The Necessary Number of People Praying to Comprise A Minyan
Whether Individuals Who Already Prayed Privately May Form A Minyan
The Minhag to Repeat Borchu

The necessary number of people praying to comprise a minyan
Tefillah betzibur (public prayer) requires a minyan comprised of ten men. There are poskim who hold that six people who are praying who joined with four non-praying people comprise a minyan, based upon the premise that rubo kekulo (that majority is considered as the whole). There is an opinion that they are considered a minyan for shacharis and mincha which contain the chazoras hashatz repetition (in which the non-praying members participate by listening) but not for ma'ariv. Others always require that all ten people pray to be considered a minyan.
( ס"ק ח; ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 8)
Whether individuals who already prayed privately may form a minyan
According to the Mechaber, fewer than ten people who prayed individually and have not responded to   kaddish, Borchu, and kedusha may gather with others (who already prayed in the congregation) to form a minyan to say kaddish and Borchu. After Borchu, which exhorts the listeners to bless Hashem, one of them recites the first blessing of Birchos K'riyas Shema aloud for the others to hear. According to the Rama, the first blessing of Birchos K'riyas Shema is not recited. This is immediately followed with the first three blessings of Shemoneh Esrei and kedusha is recited. According to the Rama, the rest of Shemoneh Esrei must also be recited, but need not be done aloud. It is preferable that there be at least six people who have not yet responded, but this may be done even for one person. The Radbaz is of the opinion that this may only be done if there is at least one person present who has not yet prayed at all. The accepted practice is to follow this opinion.
( סעיף א וס"ק א, ג ו-ח, ביה"ל ד"ה ישלים וראה ביה"ל ד"ה אומר)
The minhag to repeat Borchu
Many have the custom to repeat Borchu at Shacharis for those who came late and missed it at the beginning of Birchos K'riyas Shema. In olden times, there were places that repeated it between the silent Shemoneh Esrei and the chazan's repetition, but nowadays the prevalent custom is to repeat it at the end of the prayers. This custom is followed even if everybody was present for the first Borchu before Birchos K'riyas Shema. However, on days upon which the Torah is read there are those who do not repeat Borchu at the end of shacharis since it is unlikely that there will be anybody who has not yet responded.
( הקדמת המשנ"ב לסימן סט וס"ק ט-י; ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 1)

  • There are four common basic nuschaos (texts) for prayers: Ashkenaz, Sefard, Eidos Hamizrach, and Teimani. One must pray in the nusach of his custom.
  • When praying in a congregation with a nusach different from his own, one should say the portions recited aloud in conformance with the congregation.
  • Since the text of most blessings does not appear in the Gemara, one fulfills his obligation bedieved if he skipped non-essential portions of the blessing.

  • How one who has missed the congregation's prayers can say the dvarim sheb'kdusha (responses that require a minyan)

  • When an individual can recite Borchu before beginning his prayers

  • Restrictions on a second minyan in a congregation that already prayed



PLEASE NOTE:  The information in this email is for learning purposes only. Please review the Mishna Berura and Biurim U'Musafim before making a halachic decision. Hebrew words are occasionally transliterated to enable a smoother reading of the text. Common Ashkenazi pronunciation is generally used in these cases.