1 678
 Hilchos Berachos 55 (page 176)
 מסעיף יז עד סעיף כב

Is Davening in an Adjacent Room Considered Tefilla B'tzibur?
When is it Forbidden to Respond to Barechu?
The Obligation to Participate in a Minyan on the Yamim Noraim

Is davening in an adjacent room considered tefilla b'tzibur?
The idea that ten people scattered in different locations do not combine to form a minyan is also relevant to the halachos of tefilla b'tzibur. When a minyan is davening in one room, an individual davening away from the group in a nearby room is not considered to be davening with the tzibur. If the only entrance to the main room of the minyan is through the room where the individual is davening, there is an opinion that considers his davening to be tefilla b'tzibur. A second opinion considers it tefilla b'tzibur even if there is another entrance to the main room.

When is it forbidden to respond to Barechu?
Some poskim hold that a person standing outside a shul is required to respond to kaddish, kedusha and Barechu when he hears them from the minyan inside. Some poskim exempt him from responding, particularly if responding will interrupt his Torah study or davening. According to some poskim, if there is something disgusting (e.g. a bathroom or house of idol worship) or a goy standing between him and the shul, it is forbidden for him to answer Amen. These things form a barrier between him and the Shechina present in the shul. A second opinion holds this way only with regards to Barechu.
( סעיף כ וס"ק ס-סה; ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 75; וראה שם, 76)

The obligation to participate in a minyan on the Yamim Noraim
If someone who lives in an area that has just enough people for a minyan wants to go away for the Yamim Noraim, he must hire a replacement to take his place at the minyan. Even someone who has gone away for many years (when there were enough people to make a minyan without him) must provide a replacement if the population has decreased and he is needed to make a minyan. However, if everybody traveled to a different city for the Yamim Noraim in the past and now they want to change and daven locally, they cannot insist that he join them or hire a replacement.
( סעיף כא וביה"ל ד"ה עיר; ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 82)


  • For a group of people to be counted as one minyan, they must all be in one location (e.g. one room). People in two different locations, such as separate rooms, cannot be counted as a minyan even if there is an open door between the rooms.
  • People standing in a doorway can sometimes be counted towards the minyan. The halacha depends on the precise spot where they are standing, the size of the doorframe and the location of the door in the opening.
  • According to the Mechaber, if groups of people can see each other they can join for a minyan even if there is some distance between them. L'chatchila, a minyan should have all the people together but in times of need it is possible to be lenient.

  • Activities forbidden while listening to kaddish

  • Reciting kaddish softly

  • Must kaddish be recited according to the local custom?


The information in this email is for learning purposes only. Please review the Mishna Berura and Biurim U'Musafim before making a halachic decision. Hebrew words are occasionally transliterated to enable a smoother reading of the text. Common Ashkenazi pronunciation is generally used in these cases.