Clostridium difficile , or “C. diff” is the most common infectious cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in developed countries. Two previously rare, antibiotic-resistant (fluoroquinolones) C. diff strains, RT027 and RT078, emerged in North America and Europe, respectively, in the early 2000s in a series of outbreaks. Researchers suspected that new factor(s) may be responsible for these outbreaks. An international collaboration led by researchers from Baylor College of Medicine recently discovered that the disaccharide trehalose, widely used in the food industry (e.g. ice cream, pasta, ground beef) is likely a key player in the rise in drug-resistant C. diff strains.