Friends of Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge
Winter 2021 Newsletter
UPDATE - Hakalau Forest’s 2021 Endowment Fundraising Campaign

In early September our Friends’ group started with the goal of raising $150,000 this fall to grow our Endowment Fund (administered by Hawaii Community Foundation).
Thanks to your generous support and donations during the last three months, we’re thrilled to report that we have reached 90% of our goal as you can see from our thermometer. Our campaign ends on December 31st, so we need your help over the next three weeks to raise the balance, $12,862. Every donation, big or small, helps!
Mahalo nui loa for your recognition that a robust endowment is essential to insuring that there are no lapses in funding for needed management activities at Hakalau. The challenges that Hakalau (and its endangered birds and plants) face are increasing every year, so the faster we can reach our long-term goal of $3.5 million in the Endowment, the sooner we can achieve our intentions to help with the vital management needs of this incredible place.

We are so very grateful for your continued support – please help us reach our 2021 GOAL!
Please check out our brand new short Hakalau video
Presidents' Perch Winter 2021

J.B. Friday

President, Friends of Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge

In This Issue

UPDATE - 2021 Endowment Campaign

Save the date for the annual meeting

Research News

Stories from the early history of the Refuge by Andy Kikuta

Happy Face Spiders

Mahalo to our donors
Most of you reading this newsletter know what a kīpuka is: a patch of land, often forested, surrounded by new lava flows. Kīpukas provide habitat for the plants that spread out and colonize the lava and eventually the birds and insects that arrive once the forest is grown. The word kīpuka can also be used as a metaphor, for example as a reservoir of traditional knowledge. Think of Hawaiian fishing villages where the old ways of observing the comings and goings of fish are practiced.

In a way, the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge is a kīpuka of good plant and bird habitat in a much wider forested landscape. Hakalau’s neighbors include state forest reserves, Hawaiian Home Lands, privately owned ranches, and, indirectly, the Army’s Pōhakuloa Training Area. Of all these lands, Hakalau Forest NWR is the only place managed solely for habitat for native birds and plants. Other partners are also providing conservation benefits, though: state Forestry and Wildlife is fencing and removing feral cattle from state Forest Reserves, the Dept. of Hawaiian Home Lands is restoring koa forests, and the Pōhakuloa Training Area grows endangered plants and is cooperating with the Refuge to protect nēnē. In the future, as more areas are protected, Hakalau will be able to be a kīpuka of native species that can spread or be transplanted to help restore the broader landscape.

One service that the state Forest Reserves provide is open public access. The state Division of Forestry and Wildlife has opened up a new trail called the Kaulana Manu Nature Trail in a forested kīpuka at mile marker 21 on the Saddle Road. This mile-long trail is one of the best places on the island to see native birds if you do not have a four-wheel drive. The trail also includes signs identifying the native flora and fauna you might see, along with a modern restroom. Because it is up in the cloud forest at a mile in elevation, be prepared for cool weather and rain. Click Kaulana Manu Trail for more information on the trail.
SAVE THE DATE: Annual Meeting January 22nd at 10am including the election of new board members. More information in early January.
Refuge Update – Winter 2021
Big Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex

Aloha Friends of Hakalau Forest NWR!

As another year of the covid-19 pandemic comes to a close we have several noteworthy accomplishments to report on. Our bunkhouse facility renovation has been completed and several miles of fence replacement has occurred on the refuge. During the year we were faced with feral mouflon sheep breaching our upper Pua Akala boundary fence line. The animals were successfully dispatched and the refuge has initiated a contract to replace the upper boundary fence with 6’ ft. high sheep fence in 2022. A contract has already been let to complete the upper Pua Akala boundary and fence materials have been purchased for refuge staff and our watershed partners to begin upgrading remaining boundary fence in the coming year.

While the covid pandemic severely reduced the number of volunteer groups that the refuge was able to host in 2021, we did outplant nearly 3,000 common and endangered plants grown by Baron Horiuchi! Volunteer groups assisting in outplanting efforts included KUPU, the Boy Scouts, Mauna Kea Watershed Alliance, and the Big Island Invasive Species Committee. Many thanks for their kōkua!

That’s it for now. Wishing you all a safe and healthy holiday season!

Where's the carbon? Forest carbon cycling research at Hakalau Forest NWR

Dr. Creighton M. Litton,
Department of Natural Resources & Environmental Management, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa

Dr. Christian P. Giardina,
Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, Pacific Southwest Research Station, USDA Forest Service
Where is the carbon in Hawaiian montane wet forests? How will it respond to climate change in the form of rising temperatures? These are the types of questions that motivated us to initiate a research project in 2008 with funding from the National Science Foundation, the USDA Forest Service, and the College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources at UH Mānoa. Along with funding, we needed a small army of collaborators, research technicians, undergraduate students, graduate students and postdoctoral scientists to conduct this work. Luckily, it is not hard to recruit folks to work at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge and the adjacent Laupāhoehoe unit of the Hawaiʻi Experimental Tropical Forest! Almost 15 years later, we have gained some important insights on forest carbon cycling and how it will be impacted by rising temperatures, not only in Hawaiian forests but also in forests globally. We are happy to share some of these insights here with you. For details, see some of the many scientific publications that have been published on this work to date.
How do you measure the effects of warming on forests?

The most straightforward way to gain insight is to simply follow a given forest over time as temperatures gradually increase, but that would mean many decades of research to gain insight on questions that we need answers to today.

Studies over the past 30 years have relied on a variety of approaches, including: (a) experimental warming of forests, that is directly warming some part of a large forest or an entire (very small) forest by using buried cables underground and/or heating lamps aboveground; (b) using computer modelling and existing understanding of how temperature affects forest processes to make predictions about the future and (c) examining forests across natural temperature gradients; for example the change in temperature as you go north/south from the equator, or as you move up a mountain slope.

All of these approaches have utility, but they all also have drawbacks. (a) Warming is logistically difficult and expensive and can not be done on whole forests. (b) Modelling has increased in sophistication and utility but is only as good as the data being used to develop the model.
(c) Using natural temperature gradients to simulate temperature changes also has limitations. Processes in forest ecosystems are impacted by many driving forces besides temperature, such as what plant species make up the forest, how much rainfall an area receives, and what the soils consist of, all of which affects nutrient availability and forest productivity. In most places in the world, as you change elevation these factors other than temperature also change with elevation, which makes it very difficult to determine if observed patterns in forest processes are the result of changes in temperature or one of the other driving factors.

Our research used the natural temperature gradients with one important factor - Hawaiʻi has some very exceptional mountains due to lava flows. In Hawaiʻi, we were able to locate an elevation gradient on the Windward Hāmākua slope of Mauna Kea where only the temperature changes. Not only does species diversity stay constant with elevation along this gradient, but other important factors such as soil properties, water availability, and disturbance history also remain remarkably constant. Moreover, while the forests along our gradient are low in plant species diversity compared to other tropical forests globally, they are remarkably similar to other tropical forests globally in terms of size and number of trees, and how productive they are. So outside of differences in how many different and what kinds of trees are found in our forests in Hawaiʻi, our forests look and act like other tropical forests around the world. All of these factors make Hawaiian forests a great model study system.
Black dots are study sites. Top two red outlined areas are the Laupāhoehoe unit of the Hawaiʻi Experimental Tropical Forest and the lower red outlined areas are Hakalau Forest NWR.
We established nine permanent plots across a 5.2°C MAT (Mean Average Temperature) gradient that stretches from ~800 m elevation (~18.2°C MAT) in the Laupāhoehoe unit of the Hawaiʻi Experimental Tropical Forest to ~1600 m elevation (~13°C MAT) in the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge. All nine of these plots are in minimally disturbed, mature tropical montane wet forests dominated by ʻōhiʻa and koa. Setting up nine plots sounds easy, but it took us ~2 years to locate (with seemingly magical remote sensing techniques) and establish (with a fair bit of hard work) these nine plots. Once that was done, all we had to do was “find” the carbon in the forests, which is not that easy.
Permanent plot in Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge
Permanent plot in Laupāhoehoe unit of the Hawaii Experimental Tropical Forest
Overview of carbon budgets

As there are different approaches to quantifying temperature impacts on forests, there are also a lot of different approaches for quantifying forest carbon cycling. Carbon cycling, in general, refers to how much carbon exists in a given forest, where the carbon is found in that forest, and how much carbon flows into, within, and out of that forest. Because tropical forests can be very large, and carbon moves between all parts of a forest, you can imagine that modelling forests will be a fair bit easier that measuring them! But as we mentioned, even the best models require good data. An alternative approach for measuring carbon flows into and out of a forest is the eddy covariance or eddy flux method, where very precise instrumentation is organized along a tower that extends well above the forest canopy where the instruments can measure the forest ‘inhaling’ CO2 during the day when plants take up CO2 for photosynthesis, and ‘exhaling’ at night when photosynthesis has ceased but plants continue to respire. This approach provides a lot of data on what the forest is doing collectively, but does not provide much information on what part of the ecosystem is doing what. Finally, with a lot of hard work and openness to getting dirty you can measure all of the various components of a forest carbon budget, which is the approach that we have taken in this research.

You can think of a carbon budget like your bank account for simplicity. Your bank account has an overall total account balance, but also various subaccounts (e.g., checking, savings, college tuition, etc.) that contain funds that sum up to the total account balance. In addition, you constantly make transactions that move money into and out of the overall account and various subaccounts (i.e., deposits, withdrawals and transfers), thereby altering the overall account balance. Likewise, in a forest you have a carbon account balance, "carbon pools” can be viewed as the subaccounts. Taken together, these pools are referred to as forest carbon storage. Put another way, carbon storage is how much carbon exists in the whole forest, as well as how it is distributed across the various pools or compartments of that forest at a given point in time. Carbon fluxes (bank transactions in our analogy) are the flows of carbon into a forest (primarily via photosynthesis) and the movement of that carbon from one pool to another (subaccount transactions). This includes the loss of CO2 back to the atmosphere via plant respiration – on a cellular level, plants respire more or less just as we or any other organism does.

Most carbon pools are estimated directly with sampling in the field (e.g., soil cores to estimate the amount of carbon contained as organic matter in soils), whereas carbon fluxes are estimated either directly or indirectly. For example, one carbon flux of great interest to us is how much carbon a forest sends belowground to support roots and symbionts (e.g., mycorrhizal fungi), which is referred to in the scientific literature as “total belowground carbon flux (TBCF)”. TBCF is remarkably difficult to estimate directly, if not impossible, but luckily there is an approach based on the law of conservation of mass – (matter can neither be created nor destroyed, but can be changed in form and/or moved around) – that allows an indirect estimate of TBCF that relies on directly quantifying all of the other inputs and outputs of carbon to the soil along with overall soil C storage, ultimately solving the equation for the one unknown, TBCF.
So where is the carbon? And how is carbon in these forests impacted by increased temperature?

In terms of the total amount of carbon in Hawaiian montane wet forests, and its distribution amongst various pools, these Hawaiian tropical montane wet forests contain a LOT of carbon compared to other forests.
On average across our nine plots, we measured carbon storage to be ~556 Mg C in one hectare of forest. That represents ~300 large pickup trucks per hectare (or ~125 pickup trucks per acre), all contained in live and dead (detrital) biomass. This number makes these forests “carbon-dense hotspots”, or areas that have very high carbon content at the high end of the range reported for moist and wet tropical forests globally. Of the total ecosystem carbon storage, ~44% is contained in living parts of the forest including leaves, wood and roots, while ~56% is contained in the dead parts of the forest including soil organic matter, forest floor or litter layer, and logs. Of all the carbon pools in our forests, soil organic matter was the largest pool at 47% followed by live aboveground biomass at 36% (which is predominantly ʻōhiʻa tree biomass). Live roots, forest floor, and logs made up the remaining 17% of total forest biomass.
Drs. Creighton Litton (L) and Christian Giardina (R) sampling soils along the MAT gradient
Of particular interest, we found that the highest live biomass carbon storage occurred in forests at MATs of 16-17°C, and a recent global model predicts a sweet-spot for carbon storage in live biomass in wet forests to occur at 16.5°C MAT. We take that as further indication that Hawaiian forests do act like other tropical forests, highlighting the value of this model study system for understanding both local/regional as well as global patterns.

Interestingly, the majority of the carbon pools measured, as well as overall ecosystem carbon storage, did not decrease or increase with warming temperatures. Only forest floor and log biomass declined with warming, but these were <10% of total ecosystem carbon storage. This is good news, in that it indicates that in the absence of changes in rainfall or disturbances like hurricanes or wildfires, increased temperature is not expected to adversely impact the ability of these forests to store large amounts of carbon – yet another service that these forests provide for the planet.
What about carbon fluxes, the other side of the carbon budget coin? As with carbon pools, we identified some of the highest carbon flux values that have been published in the scientific literature, a testament to how productive these forests are and solid evidence for why they should be conserved, not only for biodiversity but also for the carbon/climate benefits they provide.

We will concentrate here on the belowground component of the carbon budget because we are soil nerds and because soils contain the largest quantity of carbon in forests (globally, soils contain >3x as much carbon as the atmosphere, and ~4.5x times more carbon than all of the world’s living biota combined).
Dr. Christian Giardina and technicians measuring "soil
respiration", or the flow of CO2 from soils to the atmosphere
In one of our first published studies, we looked at “soil respiration”, or the flux of CO2 from soils back to the atmosphere (important to note that soils do not actually respire, but rather all of the organisms in soils, including roots, do produce a lot of CO2 via respiration which produces large CO2 concentrations in soils that then moves CO2 to the overlying atmosphere via the physical process of diffusion). We found very high rates of soil respiration in these forests, some of the highest ever reported globally for forests. Equally important, we found that as mean annual temperature increases, the amount of CO2 emitted from soils also increases. This pattern had been observed along other elevation/temperature gradients globally and was interpreted in those studies as evidence that increased temperatures would result in a large, positive feedback to climate change by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and therefore temperatures, further. Sort of a run-away-train interpretation, which is very gloom-and-doom, scary stuff.
By building carbon budgets, however, we were able to look at this result in the context of the total carbon budget for these forests. Doing so revealed that the increased loss of carbon from soils via soil respiration was perfectly balanced by an increase in the flux of carbon to belowground by plants (the so called TBCF), with no change in soil carbon storage across this >5°C mean annual temperature gradient. Again, this is good news indicating that as long as only temperature is changing and there are no water limitations to growth or changes in disturbance regimes (e.g., hurricanes or wildfires), rising temperatures as a result of climate change will not reduce the capacity of tropical montane forests to store and sequester carbon. We like feel good carbon stories!

Additional work along this MAT gradient in Hawaiian tropical wet forests has examined other important, and related, ecological questions like how rising temperature will impact things like nutrient cycling, soil microbes (bacteria and fungi), invertebrates that live in the forest floor, and how these changing variables affect litter layer decomposition. Given the importance of soil carbon in these forests, and globally, that is where our current focus is with our newest graduate student at UH Mānoa, Malissa Tayo, who is conducting a study to better understand how soil carbon is formed and persists in these soils from the soil surface to 1 m depth.
Malissa Tayo and Christian Fullmer (UH Manoa graduate students)sampling 1 m deep soils cores at Hakalau Forest NWR
We would like to end by thanking you for having the patience to read this far, we sincerely hope that we did not ruin carbon for you. We would also like to thank all of the students, postdocs, technicians, collaborators, volunteers, administrators and funding agencies who have made this work possible. Mahalo nui loa for letting us to work and play in some of the most remarkable forests on the face of this planet.
Stories from the early history of the Refuge
by Andy Kikuta
If you have any stories and/or photos to share please send them to so I can include them in the future issues.
Aloha friends,
As I pondered writing this article, I couldn’t help but remember the reason all refuges do what they do. Life would not be complete if we didn’t have the outdoors to appreciate and enjoy. But beyond the sunshine and fresh air, the water and dirt, Hawaii has unique biota found nowhere else in the world. That in itself is reason to protect our species and their habitats. It is not only for the moment that we do this, but more importantly, we protect and enhance species survival for the benefit of future generations.
In light of that, the other thing I think is important to remember are the people who preceded us and those who continue to labor on behalf of our environment. I’ve had the opportunity to work with fine people who believe in the Service’s mission. If not for the vision and hard work of many people, it would be impossible to share an important part of our culture with everyone. Of course, hardly anything goes smoothly or as fast as we’d like, but it’s the people that get the work done.
Andy enjoying retirement.
My career in conservation actually started at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. It was in the research division that I had a hand in pig research and control, helping with rat research in Kipahulu Valley at Haleakala National Park, and learned the names of many native plants. It was in the Resources Management Division that I helped to monitor Judas goats, helped to write the Park’s cave management plan, and helped to start the Hawksbill turtle monitoring program. It was an important time in my life that prepared my transition to refuges.
In 1992, I was fortunate to get a permanent position with the Service at Hakalau Forest. As the Maintenance Worker Supervisor, my first marching order from Refuge Manager Dick Wass was to hire a small crew to conduct habitat management work. After rehabbing Nauhi cabin to use as a base of operations, five of us laid out a route for a fence unit below middle Honohina. We did the same for Unit 7, below the Shipman unit. The refuge contracted all fence construction so I helped with building the specs, and inspecting the work. Once a month the crew would conduct maintenance inspections of all the fenced units and repair any breaches. Often, we would find fallen ʻōhiʻa branches which would have to be cut with a chainsaw. I provided that in-house training.

One of the core tasks for the crew was feral ungulate control. We would trap, snare and hunt. With the help of a couple of volunteers, we built a kennel to house hunting dogs for the program. This was a very effective method, but unfortunately we had to shut down this program due a conflict with newly introduced Nene using the same habitat.
We also hunted feral cattle that inhabited the forest for generations. Because of their size, one the most effective means to remove them is by helicopter. As an NPS trained gunner, I ordered flights from Office of Aircraft Services vendors to recon all of the units that historically held cattle, and shoot them from the air. Due to the nature of hunting and firearm use, I provided firearm safety training and landscape orientation. I’ve been a National Rifle Association instructor since 1997. Integral to a control program is monitoring and because of my Park experience, I was able to help with installing transects and reading pig sign.
Hunting cattle by helicopter.
Spraying gorse with herbicide
The other core task for the crew was weed control. We prioritized gorse, blackberry and banana poka to control. We typically used either mechanical or chemical means. Before any crew member handled pesticides, I would provide training on safe use and operations to them. For a time the refuge conducted prescribed burns to manage the gorse infestation. Fire would kill a portion of the population, but the main objective was to remove most of the biomass so contractors could treat the trunks with herbicide. After some training and working with the regional Fire Management Officer, I became a Type 3 Burn Boss.
Back in the 90’s, most of the training I provided was based on my experience or position of authority. The only certification I had was from the NRA. As time went on and as greater national scrutiny was placed on workplace safety, standards for instructors were put in place. Over time, I became certified to teach basic fire fighting, chainsaw, ATV, and heavy equipment safety.
There were many opportunities to help other members of the staff and learn new things which increased my appreciation for what we do. I had the opportunity to help with a seabird count on Midway, help Baron with scraping koa planting sites, build and maintain facilities, help Jack conduct biological surveys, oversee weed control, road rehab, and shop construction contracts. In addition, I was the Collateral Duty Safety Officer for a number of years.
During my time at the refuge, Kona Forest was acquired, was shut down due to access issues, then re-opened. I helped manage a contract to build a fire break road around the perimeter. This was followed by fencing the entire unit with a 7’ mesh fence to prevent mouflon from entering. The crew and I built a base camp to facilitate operations as it is a 3 hour drive from the Hilo office. Much of the upper elevation of this unit is fairly open canopy and so aerial control of cattle was used.
During the last 6 years of my career, I was fortunate to be the first full time Fire Management Specialist for Hawaiian refuges. My duties included assessing threats to refuges from Guam to Midway and ensuring Fire Management Plans were in place to prevent and mitigate wildland fire. I coordinated prescribed fire needs between James Campbell NWR and the Regional Office. Lacking the resources needed, I assisted by recruiting state Division of Forestry and Wildlife and US Army qualified fire fighters to help conduct 2-3 day burns for resource benefit. At the same time I tried to recruit and train FWS employees to become qualified. Also, over a number of years, I helped build a firebreak at Kealia Pond NWR.

Other fire related duties included establishing, monitoring, and maintaining fire weather stations in Hawaii. This remote sensing system helps to determine extreme fire conditions so Project Leaders can implement prevention measures. I also represented the Service in local fire coordinating groups.

One of the best experiences I had in Fire was being able to connect with helitack crews in Arizona and Oregon. Through Regional Office contacts, I helped the BLM Weaver Mountain and Burns Interagency crews respond to initial reports of fire using medium and small helicopters. Several seasons of working with highly trained and motivated people helped me do my best in my position.
Horseshoe pit named after Andy at helitack site in Bend Oregon
However, taking this position left a void in the organization at Hakalau Forest. The Regional Fire staff allowed me to assist by doing some of the same things I used to, like operating heavy equipment to maintain refuge roads and train others in contract management, especially in the area of fencing.

I've been blessed to have worked with great people, committed to the mission and with great work ethics. I've learned nothing gets done by itself and it's even better when a team, including support staff, gets to celebrate work done. After all, it's not only productivity that's important but spreading the word that natural resources are inherently valuable and deserve the protection of many people.

Aloha pumehana,

Andy Kikuta
Are Happy-Face Spiders Really Happy?

Marcia Stone
The i’iwi is the iconic bird of the Hawaiian forest. And proudly upholding iconic status for the arthropod fauna of Hawaii is the happy-face spider. This endemic species belongs to the Theridion genus of spiders with almost 600 members worldwide, but the one most notably mentioned is our own, Theridion grallator. T. grallator was named in 1900 by a French naturalist, Eugene L. Simon, who is the most prolific spider taxonomist in history. The specimens for Simon’s work were collected by another great naturalist, R.C.L. Perkins, an Englishman who wrote Fauna Hawaiiensis. He is also remarkable for walking on lava barefoot.

With this sterling heritage, we must expect our happy-face spider to be special. And it is. First, the happy-face name. It comes from a pattern on its abdomen which often takes the shape of a smiling face. The colors can be red, yellow, white and black, but plain yellow is favored. Another feature of this spider is its long legs, which give rise to its scientific name, grallator, which means stilt-walker. Those legs come in handy at night when stalking for food. Their webs are very flimsy, not good for catching prey, so they rely on detecting vibrations transmitted by their prey through a leaf.

Besides its unusual human “face”, T. grallator also has behavior that we humans can relate to. Mothers guard their egg sacs and feed the spiderlings after they hatch. They will even adopt orphan spiderlings, not something we commonly associate with spiders.

If you would like to see these beautiful, delicate and friendly creatures, you must look on the undersides of leaves, particularly of native plants. You will have most luck in a moister mesic or wet forest. When you see one, you can then question them as to that elusive quality of happiness.

Thank you to Bob Peck for the excellent photo.
2021 Friends of Hakalau Donors  
$1000 and above:
Malama Aloha Fund, Fred Ramsey, James C. Shingle Family Fund
Corporate  $250-$999
Bob & Bettina Arrigoni, Alan & Phyllis Britten, Mary Collar, Phillip Detrich, Kaye Family Farms, Alice Finder, March Conservation Fund, August Hazel, Milton Lum, Tom Rounds, Mandy Talpass-Hawaii Bird Tours, Lynette Williams
Sponsor      $100-249
Denise Antolini, Maria Barton, Paul Beighley, Pam Burns & Ken Smith, Robert Butchart, Gayle Chavez, Sheila Conant, George Crabb, Julie Denslow, John, Drouilhet, Patricia Finfrock, Jo Ellen Force, Vida Hackell, Pat Hart, Rick Hazlett, Robert Hollyer, Lea Hong, ND Kates, Pauline Kawamata, Tracy Krill, Thomas Kualii, Alice Lindahl, Mauri Long, Dick May, Ruth Migita, Stephen Mosher, Susan Munro & Kerry Glass, Ron & Emily Needham, Geoff Nelson, Grace Nelson, Berl & Karen Nuubaum, Lena Orlando, Lynne Park, April Romero, Ann Rothe, Les & Hybe Sakamoto, Bruno Senechal, Ellen & Max Schwenne, Danya Weber, Ed and Ruria Wetherell, Linda Whitney & Allan Owen, Jake Zhang, and Network For Good. 
These donations support our office operations (website, financial and newsletter software, insurance etc). This coming year funds allocated by the Friends will be used to support Pat Hart's early mosquito detection project (described in the fall newsletter).

Donors to the endowment will be recognized in January after the Campaign ends on December 31st.
The Friends of Hakalau is a membership organization. Membership dues and donations to the Friends are our only source of funds allowing us to cover our expenses (for example this newsletter) and to make grants.

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Friends of Hakalau Forest, National Wildlife Refuge is a 501 (C)(3) organization and is recognized as a tax exempt non-profit organization by the Federal government and the State of Hawaii. We appreciate and thank you for your membership and your donations.

   J.B. Friday
Vice President
   Debbie Anderson
   Bret Mossman
   Blaire Langston

Members at large
Charlene Akina
Ken Kupchak
Creighton Litton
George Robertson
Mike Scott  
Rob Shallenberger
Marcia Stone 
Jaime Tanino