Faulkner County Agriculture Update
September 11, 2020
General Conditions

We had calm weather this week. We didn't dip down into the lower temperatures that were forecasted. Temperatures stayed around 90 with high humidity. A shower cut across the county yesterday but didn't produce much rain with it. Next week looks like more of the same with a chance of rain in the middle of the week.
Arkansas River

The river is back down to normal this week. The rise didn't last long as the water came up for a day or so then went right back down.
Row Crop

The first rice was harvested this week in the county. Initial estimates look like it was pretty decent rice. I saw very minimal amounts of kernel smut in the field, and so far the quality has been pretty good. We should see more fields harvested starting early next week along with more fields being drained.

Soybeans are still looking good around the county. I am seeing a few fields start to turn color as they get close to harvest. The majority of the fields are between R5.5 and R6. I did catch an average of 9 stink bugs in one field. The threshold for green stink bugs is 9 per 25 sweeps before R6, then it goes up to 18 per 25 sweeps after R6. Luckily this field was close to R6.5 so we will keep an eye on it. I am still monitoring velvetbean caterpillars. They just keep hanging around in enough numbers to make some beans look ragged but not enough damage to spray.

Even though we got a good rain last week, keep an eye on soil moisture. Irrigation termination for soybeans is R6.5 which is the stage were a pod in the upper four nodes has beans squared up against each other. We will probably need at least one more good rain or irrigation before we get to that stage.
SRVP (Soybean Research Verification Program) Field

The SRVP field is at R6. We are just about done with the field. We probably have 10 more days to worry about insects and irrigation then we will be done. The field still looks great. We picked up about 4 green stink bugs per 25 sweeps. We need one more good rain to finish things off.
Moth Trap Counts for this week

Corn earworm moth counts were low this week. We are slowly moving out of earworm danger on soybeans. I will keep monitoring moths for a few more weeks.
Beef & Forage
Bovine Respiratory Disease

Bovine respiratory disease (BRD), also known as shipping fever or pneumonia, has been estimated to cost the U.S. cattle industry over $500 million each year. Backgrounding and finishing operations bear the majority of the costs, which stem from treatment expenses, reduced performance and death loss. This disease complex is the single biggest killer in the United States among newly weaned cattle with several factors playing a role.

BRD is typically caused by a combination of viruses, bacteria and stress (Figure 1). Research has shown that stress plays a major role in morbidity rates associated with BRD. Stressors for cattle, including respiratory irritation from dust, overcrowding, dehorning, castration, commingling, poor nutrition, transport, weaning and handling, can contribute to the onset of illness.

The immune status of the individual animal determines the severity of illness. Viruses play a key role in initiating BRD. Usually, a viral infection is the primary or initial challenge to the respiratory tract, especially the upper respiratory tract. The most common viral agents that play a role in respiratory disease are infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), parainfluenza type 3 (PI3) and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). The latter, BRSV, is of particular concern because viral particles directly invade the lungs. These viruses enter the respiratory tract through the nose or mouth and quickly impair the protective barriers of the trachea and lungs. With the protective barriers gone, opportunistic bacteria are allowed to multiply and infect the respiratory tract, which causes inflammation and tissue damage. Most animals that have a healthy immune system can successfully fight off a viral infection, thus avoiding severe disease. However, cattle with immune suppression due to stress factors are not able to combat viral infection efficiently.

Mannheimia haemolytica (formerly known as Pasteurella haemolytica), Pasteurella multocida and Haemophilus somnus are the bacterial agents most commonly identified in advanced cases of BRD. Another opportunistic bacteria, Mycoplasma bovis, has been isolated in cattle with chronic pneumonia. All of these bacteria flourish after an initial viral infection when stress factors have weakened the animal’s immune system. Each of these bacterial agents has unique mechanisms that cause illness in cattle and must be treated accordingly.

For more information on clinical signs and prevention of BRD click on the link for our fact sheet
Winter Forages Links

Here are links to information about winter forages including planting rates and dates.
Ergot in Dallisgrass

I noticed ergot in some dallisgrass heads this week. If you have dallisgrass look at the heads for this orange fungus. If you have it be careful turning cattle into that field, especially if they are really hungry moving from a different pasture. If they graze on those heads they can get enough of the toxin in them to cause dallisgrass staggers. You can clip these heads or even bale them for hay and you shouldn't have a problem. If you do get a cow with the staggers get her off the pasture as soon as possible and get her on some feed and hay. They should be fine in 3 to 5 days.
Hay and Pasture Insects

Armyworms have made their presence felt big time this week. I have gotten several calls about armyworms in pastures, hayfields and food plots. I am still recommending 2 ounces of lambda cy (2 lb material) plus 2 ounces of Dimilin for residual. If you are planning on cutting the field for hay, you may want to leave the Dimilin out. There is no grazing restriction on these products but you have to wait 7 days to harvest hay. Keep an eye out on any winter forages you may have planted. I looked at a food plot today that was planted in wheat and forage oats that was there one day and gone the next and the worms were everywhere. They can take out those small seedlings very quickly.   
2020 Southeast U.S. Hay Feeding Survey

Extension forage specialists with the University Of Arkansas Division Of Agriculture and in the southeast U.S. would like your help in gathering information on hay feeding methods and time required for feeding hay to help develop more effective forage educational programs.
We would appreciate you taking the time to complete a survey regarding your hay feeding methods. If you do choose to participate, we appreciate your feedback and all information will be kept confidential to the extent allowed by applicable State and Federal law. By completing the survey, you are agreeing to allow the use of your responses for educational purposes. If you do not wish to complete the survey, your refusal to do so will have not any effect on your relationship with the University Of Arkansas System Division Of Agriculture. To opt out of taking the survey, simply do not complete the survey.
If you have questions or concerns about this study, you may contact John Jennings at (501) 671-2350 or by email at jjennings@uaex.edu. For questions or concerns about your rights as a research participant, please contact Ro Windwalker, the University’s IRB Coordinator, at (479) 575-2208 or by e-mail at irb@uark.edu.
Information gathered from the survey will provide direct insights into current hay feeding practices, and allow us to better develop forage educational programs. Additionally, the information provided will be used to prioritize research and Extension outreach efforts moving forward to more effectively address your needs.
Please click on the link below to access the survey. It should take approximately 10 minutes to complete.
Livestock Market Report

The weekly livestock market report is available on the Arkansas Department of Agriculture website.
Pesticide Applicator Training
Anyone that needs a private applicators license can use the online course as their required training to obtain a license. The Arkansas State Plant Board has made an exception and will allow producers that are certifying for the first time to be able to use the online training.

Upcoming Events
Soybean Virtual Field Day - September 17 at 6:00 pm. Register at this link
Contact Kevin Lawson, County Extension Agent–Staff Chair, Faulkner County | www.uaex.edu/faulkner