IMBeR IPO-China 信息速递
Your news from the Integrated Marine Biosphere Research International Project Office - China

January 2022,
No. 20

In This Issue

-New IMBeR SSC Members
-New Books and Publications
-2022 Call for SCOR Working Groups
-Feedback Survey for IMBeR West Pacific Symposium 2021
-Events, Webinars and Conferences
-Jobs and Opportunities
Follow Us on Wechat
IMBeR IPO - China is fully sponsored by ECNU and SKLEC
Editors: Kai QIN and Fang ZUO from IMBeR IPO

Academic adviser: Shan JIANG from SKLEC, ECNU
Announcing the new members 
of the IMBeR Scientific Steering Committee
We are delighted to welcome the following new Scientific Steering Committee (SSC) members:
IMBeR也很高兴邀请到刘东艳和Boris Worm分别作为中国和加拿大国际项目办公室主办单位的代表加入科学指导委员会。
We are also very pleased to have Dongyan Liu and Boris Worm join us as SSC liaisons with the host institutes our International Project Offices in China and Canada, respectively.
We thank the outgoing members for their amazing contributions to IMBeR:
基于 DNA 的生物多样性评估方法的广泛实用指南
Extensive practical guide to DNA-based
biodiversity assessment methods
该指南涉及了四种不同类型的样品:水、沉积物、无脊椎动物和硅藻,以及两种主要的分析类型:通过qPCR和类似的靶向方法检测单一物种;以及通过DNA宏条形码技术鉴定评估生物群落。在野外和实验室过程的每个阶段,该指南都列出了科学共识,以及需要作出的选择和利弊权衡。该指南特别考虑了将这些选择可能受到的诸如后勤、时间和预算等常见实际限制因素的影响。指南可在Advanced Books平台获取,随着技术的不断发展,指南也将不断更新。

Between 2016 and 2021, over 500 researchers collaborated within the DNAqua-Net international network, funded by the European Union's European Cooperation in Science and Technology program (COST), with the goal to develop and advance biodiversity assessment methods based on analysis of DNA obtained from the environment (e.g. river water) or from unsorted collections of organisms.
Such innovative methods are a real game changer when it comes to large-scale assessment of biodiversity and ecological monitoring, as collecting environmental samples that are sent to the lab for analysis is much cheaper, faster and non-invasive, compared with capturing and examining live organisms. However, large-scale adoption has been hindered by a lack of standardization and official guidance.
Recognizing the urgent need to scale up ecological monitoring as we respond to the biodiversity and climate crises, the DNAqua-Net team published a guidance document for the implementation of DNA-based biomonitoring tools.
The guide considers four different types of samples: water, sediments, invertebrate collections and diatoms, and two primary analysis types: single species detection via qPCR and similar targeted methods; and assessment of biological communities via DNA metabarcoding. At each stage of the field and laboratory process the guide sets out the scientific consensus, as well as the choices that need to be made and the trade-offs they entail. In particular, the guide considers how the choices may be influenced by common practical constraints such as logistics, time and budget. Available in an Advanced Book format, the guidelines will be updated as the technology continues to evolve.
Related book - Bruce K, Blackman RC, Bourlat SJ, Hellström M, Bakker J, Bista I, Bohmann K, Bouchez A, Brys R, Clark K, Elbrecht V. A practical guide to DNA-based methods for biodiversity assessment. DOI: 10.3897/ab.e68634 
Thermodynamic controls on rates of iron oxide reduction by extracellular electron shuttles
作者:Meret Aeppli, Sébastien Giroud, Sanja Vranic, Andreas Voegelin, Thomas B. Hofstetter, and Michael Sander
期刊:Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

在低氧和缺氧环境中,微生物的厌氧呼吸通常涉及到作为末端电子受体的颗粒状三价铁(氢氧化物)氧化物。为了确保呼吸的效率,铁还原微生物普遍采用的一种策略是细胞外电子穿梭(EES),即将两个电子从微生物细胞转移到氧化铁表面。然而,对于 EES-氧化物氧化还原热力学如何影响氧化铁还原速率的基本机制仍然是难以理解的。基于双电子转移的潜在反应自由能假设下,EES、溶液pH值和氧化铁浓度对反应速率的影响目前并没有合理解释。本项研究中,作者阐述了不同氧化铁和EES供给下速率的变化以及历史反应速率数据,解释了当这些速率与两个电子中的第一个从完全的、双电子还原的EES转移到三价氧化铁的更少的自由能放能(甚至吸能)有关时,所有相关反应速率数据是可调和的。作者展示了自由能关系如何帮助识别EES对微生物氧化铁还原的控制,从而促进了对使用氧化铁的厌氧呼吸的更基本的理解。

Anaerobic microbial respiration in suboxic and anoxic environments often involves particulate ferric iron (oxyhydr-)oxides as terminal electron acceptors. To ensure efficient respiration, a widespread strategy among iron-reducing microorganisms is the use of extracellular electron shuttles (EES) that transfer two electrons from the microbial cell to the iron oxide surface. Yet, a fundamental understanding of how EES–oxide redox thermodynamics affect rates of iron oxide reduction remains elusive. Attempts to rationalize these rates for different EES, solution pH, and iron oxides on the basis of the underlying reaction free energy of the two-electron transfer were unsuccessful. Here, we demonstrate that broadly varying reduction rates determined in this work for different iron oxides and EES at varying solution chemistry as well as previously published data can be reconciled when these rates are instead related to the free energy of the less exergonic (or even endergonic) first of the two electron transfers from the fully, two-electron reduced EES to ferric iron oxide. We show how free energy relationships aid in identifying controls on microbial iron oxide reduction by EES, thereby advancing a more fundamental understanding of anaerobic respiration using iron oxides.
Shark Side of the Moon:
Shark Attacks are Related to Lunar Phase
作者:Lindsay A. French, Stephen R. Midway, David H. Evans and George H. Burgess
期刊:Frontiers in Marine Science
不同动物类群都表现出与月相(即指代月球被太阳照明部分的变化)相关的行为,海洋生物以月亮来校准某些活动的行为也有许多记录。很少有研究关注月相与鲨鱼袭击人类之间可能存在的联系,其结果往往也是初步的或缺乏联系的。作者使用了近50年来全球鲨鱼袭击的数据来测试鲨鱼袭击与月相之间的关系,并且研究了地理环境、鲨鱼种类和攻击结果等因素。从测试的12个关系(共计120次比较)中,作者发现了12个显著的结果,其中5个是正向的(即袭击次数多于预期),7个是负向的(即袭击次数少于预期)。具体来说,所有鲨鱼袭击次数多于预期的实例都发生在月球照明(lunar illumination)超过50% (处于半月至满月之间)的情况下,而所有鲨鱼袭击次数少于预期的实例都发生在月球照明(lunar illumination)低于50%的情况下。这些发现表明了全球尺度下鲨鱼袭击可能与月相有关,这些信息有助于评估鲨鱼袭击风险,为水上娱乐活动制定建议。

Animals across taxa have shown behaviors linked to moon phase (or the proxy of lunar illumination), and marine organisms are well-documented to calibrate certain activities with the moon. Few studies have looked at a possible connection between moon phase and shark attacks on humans, and the results have been preliminary or lacking relationships. We used nearly 50 years of shark attack data from across the globe to test for a relationship between shark attacks and moon phase. We examined factors of geography, shark species, and outcome of attack. From 12 relationships that we tested (totaling 120 comparisons), we found 12 significant outcomes, of which five were positive (i.e., more attacks than expected) and seven were negative (i.e., fewer attacks than expected). Specifically, all the instances of more shark attacks than expected occurred at lunar illumination >50%, while all the instances of fewer shark attacks than expected occurred at lunar illumination of <50%. The findings presented here provide global evidence that shark attacks may be related to moon phase, and such information could be useful toward evaluating attack risk and developing recommendations for water-based recreational activities.

Events, Webinars and Conferences

Jobs and Opportunities
IMBeR IPO-China信息速递的订阅读者为亚太地区的涉海科研人员,如果您希望在此投放您的招聘需求,请发送邮件至[email protected].
Most our subscribers are IMBeR-related researchers in the Asia-Pacific region. If you would like to put some recruitment information in the IMBeR IPO – China e-News, please contact us through [email protected].