There was a time when people made stuff. Muscle was the enabling force of Industry 0.0. This was a period of manual labor with some help from horses and wind to provide power.
In the 18
th century people figured out how to use water to make stuff. The steam engine and water wheel were the enabling technologies of Industry 1.0. This replaced some of the muscle power so that we could manufacturer more efficiently.
By the late 19
th century, people had figured out how to use electricity to make stuff. Electrical distribution to run motors and induction furnaces was the enabling technology of Industry 2.0. Again, fewer resources were required in production and manufacturing became more efficient.
In the 20
th century we learned how to make stuff with computers. Analog/digital converters, microprocessors, and software were the enabling technologies for Industry 3.0. This enabled control systems to automatically measure and control industrial processes as well as run advanced algorithms and analytics and provide data to plant wide networks to generate reports. This created further efficiencies by replacing resources and getting things done faster.
We now are in the midst of Industry 4.0. This term emerged in 2011 from the annual Hannover Messe trade fair in Hanover, Germany. How is it different from 3.0? What is the enabling technology and what are we replacing?
The Internet is the enabling technology. That's it. Functionally nothing has changed from Industry 3.0.
We still have analog/digital converters, microprocessors, and software doing the work. We haven't replaced them; in fact, we have accelerated their use. What has been replaced? In-house and proprietary connectivity.
If this sounds like my previous article, there is a reason. The way the terms "digitalization", "digital transformation" and "Industry 4.0" are used make them virtually indistinguishable from each other. They really are talking about the same thing. It is using the enabling technology of the Internet to make connectivity and data storage easier and more cost effective.
My previous article also addressed the caveats introduced in this new world. Prior to Industry 4.0 our industrial facilities were not connected to a public data infrastructure. However, many of them were connected to a public electrical power infrastructure and still are. In the same way that a brownout on the grid could take down a facility that doesn't have the forethought to design a backup, connectivity to the Internet creates a vulnerability. While there is this vulnerability, the greatest security threats to your system are relics of Industry 3.0. As bad as you think an intrusion from a hacker can be, the more likely threat is a USB stick with a virus that gets plugged into a port or a person in your facility that has their fingers on a keyboard.
That is what Industry 4.0 means. The ability to have machine learning algorithms, data analytics, digital networks, and automation did not suddenly appear in Industry 4.0. We had that functionality in Industry 3.0. The difference is that we now have the Internet as an enabling technology. In the 4
th quarter 2018 edition of Smart Industry magazine, Haresh Malkani (CTO of CESMII) says that control systems have been around for decades and we have used them to do smart things for a long time. "But the big thing that has changed is our ability to connect all these things together. That's what makes it smarter." However, it isn't that we couldn't connect before Industry 4.0. It is the Internet making it easier in the Industry 4.0 world.
The question will be whether we can do it the right way. In that same issue of Smart Industry magazine, Suzanne Burns (consultant at Spencer Stuart) said "A recent survey shows that 9 out of 10 digital transformation efforts did not meet business objectives." This means that done improperly, the use of Internet connectivity can not only add vulnerability but also be a waste of money.
This is not to say that there isn't something to be gained with Industry 4.0. For example, there are many cases where the data analytics that are currently done with the Industry 3.0 infrastructure are not done in an efficient and standard manner built around business needs. In the paper industry we have seen customers working with the tools from the Industry 3.0 tool box to provide simple things like production numbers. Each facility has their own methodology to produce this number. This means that in larger companies 20+ engineers develop 20+ unique calculations. From an efficiency standpoint they just paid 20+ times what they should have for a single calculation. If business needs change, they now have to manage going into all 20 calculations to make a change. By using Industry 4.0 connectivity through the Internet we can create and manage one calculation for the whole company that will ensure all facilities are being counted and reported in the same manner. There is only one calculation to manage if there is a change. It might seem like a small savings but when the multiplied cost of maintaining each Industry 3.0 solution compares to a single connected Industry 4.0 solution, it often results in a broken system in the former case and a working solution in the latter. This is one of many cases in which Industry 4.0 provides the return on investment that Internet connectivity makes more feasible.
A major cause of the confusion in terminology and understanding is that gains made in other industries that lack the Industry 3.0 benefits we already have in our industry make the business case worthy of further scrutiny. In the process industries (paper, chemical, water, etc) we have been riding Industry 3.0 and it benefits. When the benefits of Industry 4.0 are advertised, they are most often addressed to industries that have no Industry 3.0 to start with. In the November/December issue of Intech magazine, Stefan Zippel makes several great points:
"Looking at Industry 4.0 as a journey, the process industry is already flying, while other industries are only now checking in"
"The focus of Industry 4.0 has been on the technology, connecting assets and collecting data. But similar technology has been used in the process industry for decades."
"In short, Industry 4.0 failed to show how it would raise profit margins, lower operating costs, and manage risks better than the existing standards used in the process industry."
Yes, we are in a new era of industry. There are benefits to be had. But the distinction between this era and its predecessor in our industry requires a deeper understanding beyond the buzzwords. To get a good return on investment and prevent opening a vulnerability, we need to know what enabling technology we are talking about and what it replaces.
Pat Dixon is Southwest Region Engineering Manager for Global Process Automation (GPA), a controls system integration firm.
Where Do IIoT and Manufacturing Strategy Intersect?
It's not machines but people that are vital to developing and executing the right manufacturing strategy. IIoT is nonetheless an invaluable toolset.
In the world of manufacturing, there are seemingly endless strategies from which to choose. Will you employ a
lean mindset and work relentlessly to eliminate waste? Or will you apply the
Six Sigma philosophy and use data to eliminate defects and errors? How about embedding maintenance into your everyday operations with a
total productive maintenance (TPM) strategy?
No matter the approach you choose, any strategy will take careful thought and consideration from key decision makers within the organization. When a new strategy is decided upon, extensive planning and cross-functional support are required, and so is a project plan with frequent check-ins.
One common thread that runs through all manufacturing strategies is reliability. That is, any good manufacturing strategy will aim to enable the long-term health and performance of the assets you use. But where does IIoT come in, and where can it reinforce your strategy? Firstly, let's define IIoT in the context of manufacturing.
Sarah Bellstedt is a Content Marketing Specialist at Fiix Software.
IoT Brings Opportunities and Regulatory Needs
Federal and private sector leaders described how Internet of Things (IoT) devices present opportunities for the Federal government, but also present the need for regulation during a panel at the Internet of Things Global Summit on Thursday.
"We have to be aware of the threats and vulnerabilities, but we also have to recognize that IoT brings with it a fantastic opportunity, not just for industry but for government," said Robert Metzger, head of the Washington D.C. office of the law firm Rogers Joseph O'Donnell. "There's almost no part of government at any level where one could not postulate an attractive use case where government would benefit from IoT technology."
Colleen Ekas, assistant vice president for IoT product management and channel enablement at AT&T, described how her company worked to incorporate IoT into government offerings like FirstNet and solutions for the U.S. Postal Service. "Governmentizing is a word I made up...and to us means enabling products by hardening, securing, and enabling them for the Federal, state, and local levels of government," she said. "We think about it in terms of contracting. We think about it in terms of product requirements and security," she added.
Is Vibration Detection the Canary in the Mines for Manufacturing?
Keep excess vibration in check using IIoT-enabled condition-monitoring sensors.
The Internet of Things permeates our lives daily, changing the way we live by shifting how we connect and communicate with people or systems. The same holds true for the industrial internet of things (IIoT), which offers similar benefits when used to increase plant productivity and reliability.
"For automation, control, and process management, the industry has been collecting data and using it to inform actions for years," said Kevin Clark, VP of Fluke Accelix. "The 'newness' of the IIoT is where the data can be stored-such as in the cloud-how it is analyzed, and then the capability to do something [with] it."
There are several maintenance strategies associated with improving plant performance, including preventive and predictive maintenance (PM and PdM, respectively). Condition monitoring-part of predictive maintenance-uses sensors and software to identify current equipment state and performance abnormalities, such as increased vibration, temperature, pressure, and more.
Market trends dictate technology do more than simply provide measurements. Devices that can connect to online databases or third-party systems accelerate the change in existing reliability strategies. A truly connected framework is required to meet the demands of evolving facility environments.
A small pilot program is the best way to start harnessing the power of IIoT devices and can be mixed into existing maintenance programs. Select a few assets on which to install condition-monitoring sensors, then scale the program to meet the needs of the facility.
Frederic Baudart is a lead product application specialist for Fluke Accelix, a Fluke Corporation brand. Baudart focuses on the company's process, electrical, and mechanical product lines. He has 20 years of field service engineering and preventive maintenance experience. He holds technical degrees in electrical and instrumentation engineering, is a Certified Materials & Resource Professional (CMRP), and has a thermography level I certificate.
The growth in the profile of drones has surely by now moved out of the folder marked "Fad." Where once flying model aircraft was seen as a fairly niche hobby, enjoyed by men with sensible jackets and thick-rimmed glasses, now seemingly everyone wants to get in on the drone act.
Drones are now used extensively to carry out inspections or survey and map terrain in harsh or hazardous environments. For work on power lines or oil rigs, the benefits to the health and safety of human workers are clear. After all, why would you send a human up a tower to assess a fault when it takes a camera-equipped drone 10 seconds to get there?
Industry 4.0, the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), Big Data and drones are all emerging technology stories destined to find ways to complement one another. When you consider a drone as just another sensor, the same as you'd find installed in factories and machines anywhere, you can begin to see where it fits in the automation ecosystem.
For example, it's not difficult to imagine using a thermal-imaging device connected to a drone to track high levels of heat coming from an area in a factory and autonomously activate the sprinkler system or notify emergency services.
range of IRSX industrial IR cameras from
Automation Technology is designed to facilitate the use of thermal imaging in Industry 4.0 applications. Completely self-contained with embedded data processing, these compact, rugged cameras feature a multitude of interface protocols for direct communication with automation and control equipment. These include OPC-UA, a platform-independent, open standard for machine-to-machine communication, which is suited for Industry 4.0.
With a choice of sensors (336 x 256 or 640 x 512 pixels), fields of view, frame rates and physical configurations, these new cameras can be used for autonomous thermal monitoring wherever temperature is a critical factor in the manufacture and processing of industrial products. Other applications include preventive early fire detection and plant condition monitoring.
A powerful, user-friendly web interface provides access to a comprehensive range of software tools on the versatile embedded AT Vision World platform. These support the integration and use of the cameras and include sensor communication libraries and standard APIs, such as REST, GigE Vision, MQTT and OPC-UA, as well as a number of application-specific apps. Solutions for thermal imaging applications can be created without the need for a PC or additional specialized thermal imaging software.
STEMMER IMAGING is one of Europe's leading machine vision technology providers for science and industry. With a perfect combination of innovative products, expert advice and comprehensive service, STEMMER IMAGING helps clients solve their machine vision tasks securely with speed and ease. Experienced specialists can be contacted easily and are available to provide advice locally in 19 European countries.
Coming up next month...
A connected factory leads to smarter manufacturing
Machine Monitoring: The Strategy to Achieve Exponential Efficiency Gains
Industry 4.0: Powering Ahead with Solid State Batteries
and much more
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