A Message from BCHA Director of Member and Business Development, Mike Macleod
Dear members and stakeholders,

"The journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step."
- Lao Tzu
But if those first few steps are painful, will you keep going? And how will you feel when you get there?
Lately, I’ve been giving consideration to the gradual re-opening of Canada’s land and air borders. While we all welcome these changes as they signal the return of our visitor economy, it is important that the hotel sector double down on its support of the advocacy work being done by airlines, airline councils and airports to correct the damage inflicted by the impact of travel restrictions.
The lack of a defined re-opening plan has left airlines, in particular, scrambling to deal with heightened demand while still trying to adjust to new and evolving operational realities. The instability of our transportation sector quite simply is a risk to the overall guest experience before visitors ever set foot in Canada.
While our sector has banded together over the past 18+ months to support our local industry colleagues, our voices and support continue to be needed in order to see the proper return of infrastructure that will help foster our long term recovery.
Speaking anecdotally, I recently returned from a trip outside of Canada, where I witnessed first-hand the current struggles the North American airline industry is facing. During my venture home the impacts of the pandemic on the traveler journey were abundantly clear -- restricted flight routes, flight cancellations, a critical workforce shortage, heightened passenger anxiety, closed outlets in airports, new requirements for passenger documentation, and pricey COVID-19 rapid tests, were among the glaring developments in comparison to our pre-COVID era.
 These are struggles that our guests will experience and will affect the perception of their trip. Gateway experiences often threaten to define the guests' overall journey and we risk having our visitors arrive frustrated and questioning their decision to travel to our country.
So what can we all do?
As most of these issues are dealt with on a federal level, and given that a federal election is looming, the best course of action you can take is to contact your local MP and express your concerns. In addition, it is similarly impactful to contact those who will be running against your MP, providing them with the same message.
Our national advocacy groups and organizations -- that include HAC, TIAC, the National Airlines Council and Canada's Airport council -- have worked hard to demand a better plan in order to operate efficiently. The work will continue for the foreseeable future, let's amplify their voices to ensure that when our international tourists return, it’s a smooth landing.
Mike Macleod
Director, Member and Business Development
BC Hotel Association
Today's update includes:

  • General Updates
  • Have Your Say on B.C.’s Permanent Paid Sick Leave
  • Propel | New Government Funded Program with Financial Assistance for Employers
  • Province Announces Recipients of Active Transportation Planning Grants Advocacy Support Needed | Hardest Hit Coalition
  • Reminder | Interior Health - COVD-19 Resources
  • New Funding Through Transport Canada’s Airport Critical Infrastructure Program
  • Reminder| Free Access to Accommodation Performance Tracking Data with STR
  • Know Before You Go | Tourism Resources
  • go2HR | Tips to Protect Workers from the Heat
  • Apply Today | Tourism & Hospitality Relief
  • Closing Friday! | BCHA Crises Survey
  • Upcoming BCHA Webinar | Managing Risk Presented by Western Financial Group
  • Searching for Employees? Integral Hospitality Offering Outsourced Workers!
  • Help the Tourism & Hospitality Industry Return to a New Normal & Win $1500
  • Mark Your Calendars
  • BC Hospitality Foundation | Tickets for Charity Online 50/50 Raffle on Sale Now
  • Save the Date! | BC Tourism & Hospitality Conference, March 8-11, 2022
  • Hiring in the Fall? Student Work Placement Program | FREE Information Session Aug 4
  • Fore the Love of Tourism 15th Annual TIP Invitational Golf Tournament 2021
  • Tipping Our Hat to Industry!
  • Congratulation to Harbour Air on the Inagural Flight of their new Vancouver-Kelowna Route
  • Former Hotel Manager, Andrea Proske, Picks Up a Gold Medal at Tokyo 2020!
  • In the News
  • Victoria's tourism crunch, Tourists flocking to BC capital, but hotels, restaurants can't hire enough staff | Castanet, August 5th
  • Feds list locations to spread out B.C.-specific economic development agency | Vancouver Sun, August 5th
  • Tourism After Lockdown: Temperature Check on Travel | STR, August 4th
  • Comment Card | Industry Thoughts & Feedback
  • Last Laugh | A Little Something to Make Our Members Smile
Have Your Say on B.C.’s Permanent
Paid Sick Leave
Public consultation on the development of paid sick leave is now underway.

In addition to outreach to key stakeholders and Indigenous partners, a public consultation process is now open and can be accessed through government’s engagement site.

There will be two phases of consultation:
  • Phase 1 (Aug. 5 to Sept. 14) – surveys will gather information from employers and workers on the kinds of paid illness and injury leaves currently provided, and how they are meeting workers’ needs; and
  • Phase 2 (Sept. 20 to Oct. 25) – informed by the surveys, options will be prepared for various paid sick leave models, including the numbers of paid days and other supports, and will be posted for public feedback and input.

More information below:
Propel | New Government Funded Program with Financial Assistance for Employers
Yesterday, Tourism HR Canada announced the launch of a federally funded Student Work Placement Program offering paid work-integrated learning opportunities in the tourism and hospitality sector.

Called Propel, this initiative provides post-secondary students with paid work-integrated learning opportunities with tourism and hospitality employers. Employers who hire students through this initiative receive a wage subsidy of 75% of the student’s wages, up to a maximum of $7,500.

This program will be a lifeline to our hardest-hit sector, providing talent and financial assistance at a time when so many employers are struggling.

This new program benefits the full spectrum of the visitor economy as it emerges from the crushing impact of the pandemic:
  • Employers acquire much-needed early talent to help with the recovery of the industry, as well as assistance with wages after an 18-month stretch of little or no income.
  • Students gain paid hands-on learning and mentoring in their field of study.
  • Post-secondary institutions complement their programming by connecting students and the workplace.

All qualifying parties—from small, independent operations to large, multi-property companies—are invited to apply for this timely support for our sector at PropelCareers.ca.
ICYMI | Province Announces Recipients of Active Transportation Planning Grants
The Province is providing more than $404,000 to help local governments include active transportation in their community planning.

Since the Active Transportation Planning Grant launched, intakes in October 2020 and May 2021 have provided funding to 22 communities with the goal of encouraging British Columbians to choose walking, cycling, skateboarding and other active methods to get to their destinations.

The recipients include:
  • Capital Regional District: $20,000 – Active Transportation Plan for Southern Gulf Islands
  • Central Saanich: $16,865 – Official Community Plan update
  • Chetwynd: $20,000 – Official Community Plan update
  • Cumberland: $18,790 – Transportation Master Plan – Active Transportation Foundations
  • Houston: $20,000 – Official Community Plan update: Active Transportation Plan
  • Islands Trust: $17,500 – Ferry to Village Project Scoping: Safe Connectors for People of all Ages and Abilities
  • Kitimat: $20,000 – Active Transportation Network Planning and Analysis
  • Ladysmith: $19,900 – Official Community Plan: Active Transportation Engagement and Policies
  • North Coast Regional District: $13,625 – Strategic Official Community Plan Policy Update for Active Transportation in District D
  • Osoyoos: $10,000 – Official Community Plan Policy Update
  • Peachland: $10,000 – Trail of the Okanagans-Peachland Connections
  • Port Alberni: $19,654 – Official Community Plan update: Active Transportation Strategy
  • Powell River: $20,000 – Sustainable Official Community Plan update: Bicycle Strategy
  • Prince Rupert: $20,000 – Integrated Transportation Master Plan
  • Princeton: $19,500 – 2008 Official Community Plan Review and Update
  • Nanaimo Regional District: $20,000 – Official Community Plan for Electoral Area G
  • Rossland: $20,000 – Official Community Plan Active Transportation Integration
  • Sayward: $18,617 – Active Transportation Planning
  • Sidney: $20,000 – Official Community Plan Active Transportation Objectives and Policies
  • Strathcona Regional District: $20,000 – Cortes Island Active Transportation Planning Research and Data Collection Project

For more information on Active Transportation Community Grants, please see below or visit: https://news.gov.bc.ca/releases/2021TRAN0115-001508
Advocacy Support Needed |
Hardest Hit Coalition
Coalition of Hardest Hit Businesses
While we were pleased with the recent federal announcement to extend CEWS/CERS programs to October, the Hardest Hit Coalition continues to work to establish a tailored, sector specific survival program.
Our Federal Ask is to establish a COVID Tourism and Events Business & Employee Survival Program, in order to provide qualified and limited financial support to tourism and events businesses with significant revenue losses from September 2021 to May 2022.
How you can help
·   Engage with your local MPs/Candidates this summer – whether it’s a meeting, email, phone call, when they come knocking on your door, or a letter. You can find your local Member of Parliament here.
·   Download and share our key messaging guidelines here.
·   Send a letter to your local Member of Parliament. It is already written, you simply need to press send! Please do so on our microsite and ask your networks to do the same at HardestHit.ca
·   Spread the word on social media:
·   About our call for more support:
·   Canada’s #HardestHit businesses will need help over the upcoming months, and particularly the September-May period for some, through continued wage and fixed cost support. Learn More: HardestHit.ca
·   Encourage your network to send a letter:
·   Send a letter to your Member of Parliament to ask them to roll out sector-specific support at the earliest opportunity for Canada's #HardestHit businesses to ensure their survival into the fall and winter. Visit: HardestHit.ca
·   Keep us in the loop:
·   Let us know how you make out! Who did you meet with? What kind of reception did you receive? Use the Advocacy Campaign dashboard to report your meetings and share comments.
Interior Health | COVD-19 Resources
As of July 29, additional regional measures have been put in place by Interior Health, for Kelowna and the Central Okanagan, to help reduce COVID-19 transmission. Visitors and residents have been asked the follow to follow these guidelines to keep our community and each other safe. 

Interior Health has shared the following COVID-19 and vaccine resources:
For more information about the current COVID-19 restrictions in place in the central Okanagan, please click here
Reminder | New Funding Through Transport Canada’s Airport Critical Infrastructure Program
Vancouver Airport Authority welcomed last week's announcement which confirms new federal funding through Transport Canada’s Airport Critical Infrastructure Program (ACIP) for essential airport safety and infrastructure projects.
This funding comes at a pivotal time as Vancouver International Airport (YVR) is preparing to welcome back travellers and help lead the region’s economic recovery.
Funding from ACIP totals $38.4 million and will support two projects at YVR, including upgrades to the airport’s Runway End Safety Area and its dyke and drainage system.
Don't Forget | Free Access to Accommodation Performance
Tracking Data with STR
Accommodation operators have a unique opportunity to learn more about the performance of B.C.'s hotel, lodge, and B&B performance, with no cost to participate.
As we all move toward recovery, it’s never been more important to strategize around pricing and understanding whether to try and recoup occupancy rates or maintain room rates. 
STR’s weekly reporting tool enables accommodation providers to see how their own property is performing against those within the local market - both geographic area and class of accommodation.
How It Works

STR collects rooms available, rooms sold, and net room revenue on a monthly, weekly, and daily basis from participating hotels. Data is then fed back to all participants in reports - and via a personal dashboard. All individual hotel data remains confidential and is never released to a third party.
Submitting data assists not only participating properties, but also the local market and the entire province. Participation is fast and easy, taking less than 5 minutes a month.


The BC Regional Tourism Secretariat (BCRTS) and BC Hotel Association (BCHA) have teamed up with STR to help more accommodation operators join and benefit from this program.
Weekly and monthly STR reports that detail accommodation performance across the province are provided to the Regional DMO partners each week by Symphony Tourism Services. The aim of the BCRTS partners, BCHA, and STR is to increase hotel participation so that quality and accuracy of data increases for everyone across British Columbia.
Know Before You Go | Tourism Resources
FOR OPERATORS | Emergency Preparedness

With the priority of ensuring that travelers have all the official resources they need to make informed decisions based on the latest, on-the-ground information, DBC has created and updated their Emergency Preparedness page. Consider this a fulsome resource to keep both yourself and your visitors informed over the course of the ongoing fire season and COVID-19 pandemic.

Wildfire and COVID-19 messaging guidance can be found on the webpage, along with safe and responsible travel graphics for you to use on your channels, a visitor-facing safe travel brochure (web and print version), and the links to DBC's Know Before You Go information.

FOR VISITORS | Know before you go.

Current travel restrictions, wildfire info, and other key visitor information on is available on Destination BC's consumer website, HelloBC.com. Click here to visit the Know Before You Go page and share the resource with anyone travelling within BC.
go2HR | Tips to Protect Workers
from the Heat
As hot temperatures are predicted across the province, employers need to pay extra attention to workers who work in outdoor settings, to minimize the risk of heat stress.
Heat stress can mean heat exhaustion, or worse, heat stroke. The symptoms of heat exhaustion include dizziness, excess sweating, fainting and muscle cramps. Heat stroke symptoms include increased breathing rate, lack of sweating, confusion, seizures and even cardiac arrest.
WorkSafeBC requires employers to conduct heat stress assessments at their place of work and have a heat stress mitigation plan that trains and educates staff to recognize the symptoms of heat stress and apply appropriate controls.
Each year, WorkSafeBC accepts many work-related injury claims because of heat stress but with a bit of preparation by employers and workers, it is an easily preventable injury.
Here are some tips to help protect outdoor workers during the heatwave:
  • Workers should increase their water intake, and drink one glass every 20 minutes.
  • Limit strenuous physical work during the hottest hours of the day (11 am – 3 pm).
  • Wear light colored, loose fitting cotton clothing and taking regular breaks in a cool, well-ventilated area.
  • Workers should be aware of their own personal risk factors (pre-existing conditions or medications) and should check themselves and co-workers for symptoms of heat stress.
Employers can make appropriate modifications to mitigate the risk of heat related claims by monitoring heat conditions and changing practices or policies to limit the risk. That may mean additional workers and rotating work activities to limit prolonged heat exposure. Employers can set up cooling areas with shade and water so workers can rest and cool off during the hot weather. Ensuring that there is adequate first aid coverage and that emergency procedures are in place is another simple step employers can take to protect their workers from the additional risks of high temperatures.
Visit go2HR’s Staying Safe During High Temperatures webpage for practical resources on managing the effects of heat exposure in the workplace.
If you have any questions regarding workplace health and safety, please contact us via phone: 604-633-9787 or email: safety@go2hr.ca. Our qualified health and safety staff are available to assist and we look forward to supporting you and your team.
Apply Today | Tourism & Hospitality Relief
Federal Programs
  • Tourism Relief Fund (TRF): to help tourism businesses and organizations adapt their operations to meet public health requirements while investing in products and services to facilitate their future growth. The $500 million national initiative across Canada will be administered by Western Economic Diversification in Western Canada.
  • Canadian Emergency Rent Subsidy (CERS): Subsidy to cover a portion of eligible expenses until September 25, 2021. Also includes an additional Lockdown Support of 25% if your business was significantly affected by a public health order. Hotline: 1-800-959-5525
  • Highly Affected Sectors Credit Availability Program (HASCAP): Aimed at sectors like tourism and hospitality, hotels, arts and entertainment, and will offer 100% government-guaranteed financing and provide low-interest loans up to $1 million for up to ten years.
  • Canada Emergency Wage Subsidy (CEWS): Covers part of your employee wages retroactively back to December 20, 2020 until September 25, 2021. The maximum subsidy is 75%. Hotline: 1-800-959-5525
  • Canada Recovery Hiring Program (CRHP): The new Canada Recovery Hiring Program (CRHP) is designed to encourage businesses to grow as the economy recovers, whether it’s due to hiring and re-hiring staff, increasing shifts, or increasing overall pay.
  • Note: Your business can only claim the CEWS OR CRHP - here is a comparison between the two programs
  • Canada Recovery Benefit (CRB): $400 per week for 13 two-week periods between September 27, 2020, and September 25, 2021 for self-employed workers and those in the gig economy. Applications are handled through the Canada Revenue Agency. Hotline: 1-833-966-2099
Indigenous Programs

Provincial Program
  • The Workplace Accessibility Grant program. The grant program direct supports to small business employers in British Columbia by providing direct financial assistance towards creating an inclusive work environment for persons with a disability(ies).
Survey | BCHA Crises Survey
Following over 18 months of losses, we are now in the peak of our summer season and the current workforce shortage has resulted in significant challenges for operators. On top of this, restrictions in the Central Okanagan region and an exceptionally difficult wildfire season have complicated what is historically the most lucrative time of the year for our industry.

The BCHA is seeking your voice to inform advocacy work that is critical to the survival of our sector.

  • Has the workforce shortage impacted your business?
  • Have you lost revenue due to cancellations from the wildfire season?
  • Are you struggling to adapt to new Central Okanagan COVID-19 restrictions?

Your participation offers enormous support in clarifying our industry's message and your voice continues to be needed as we shift to recovery.

Upcoming BCHA Webinar | Managing Risk Presented by Western Financial Group
Wednesday, August 11th | 1PM - 2M PDT

Rudy Penner, Director of Risk Management
Western Financial Group

With a hard market and a reduced appetite from insurers, adopting risk management strategies is more important than ever. Implementing a comprehensive risk management program at your hotel, motel or pub can help protect what matters most: your people, your property, and your livelihood.

Join the BC Hotel Association and Western Financial Wednesday, August 11th at 1pm to learn more about how to implement risk management strategies.
Help the Tourism & Hospitality Industry Return to a New Normal & Win $1500
Participate in the survey and enter into a draw for prizes valued at $1,500.
go2HR has been hard at work undertaking a Labour Market Information research project to better understand the impact of COVID-19 on our workforce. Even before COVID-19, the industry faced some significant human resource challenges. We know those challenges will only increase as we emerge from the pandemic. 
We need your help! 
We need to hear from a representative sample of employers across all sectors and regions of the province. We ask for assistance in sharing the survey with a wide variety of businesses in the province, and ask you to please share this survey with your members. It takes approximately 25 minutes to complete this survey. We want to hear about the impact of COVID-19 on your member’s operations, the human resource issues they face, and what can be done to help industry in dealing with these issues going forward. Any information provided will be held confidential, used only for the purpose of this study, and reported only in summary form with the responses of other respondents. Please help us spread the word!
REMINDER | Searching for Employees? Integral Hospitality Offering Outsourced Workers
Integral Hospitality, a division of the Integral Services Group, have assisted a number of hotels throughout BC with their outsourced housekeeping needs.

Integral, a BCHA premier partner, recognizes the urgency that many accommodators are facing as we re-start domestic travel throughout the province.

Integral was able to help a BCHA member this week supplying two housekeepers to an Okanagan property within 24 hours. Please contact Brett Mollard directly at brett@integralservicesgroup.com
to learn more or visit their website here.
Mark Your Calendars
Save the Date! | BC Tourism & Hospitality Conference, March 8-11, 2022

Mark your calendars! The 2022 BC Tourism & Hospitality Conference officially has a date. Taking place in Prince George, March 8-11, 2022, the conference will be an informative multi-day conference aimed at supporting growth and celebrating industry.

Stay tuned for further updates coming soon!
Hiring in the Fall? Student Work Placement Program | FREE Information Session Aug 4

Looking to hire a student this Fall? f you need a little help, the Student Work Placement Program (SWPP) offers a wage subsidy of up to $7,500 towards hiring a student.
The SWPP has changed eligibility criteria, meaning your organization can probably access funding! On Wednesday, August 4, 2021 at 1:00pm PT for an information session on how the program works, eligible positions, and how to apply.
Brought to you by the Talent MATCH Program, the SWPP Info Session will feature representatives from two SWPP delivery partners: Cheryl Serpanchy, the Regional Coordinator at ICTC WIL Digital, and Louie Di Palma, the Director of SME Programs at the Talent Opportunities Program. They will review student positions their programs can fund, employer and student eligibility criteria, and how to apply.
This info session is free, but you must register for it here.
Want more information on hiring students? Visit the Talent MATCH webpage for more details or contact Project Manager Debby Reis at TalentMatch@acewilbc.ca.
BC Hospitality Foundation | Tickets for Charity Online 50/50 Raffle on Sale Now

Tickets are on sale for the BC Hospitality Foundation's first ever online 50/50 raffle. Purchase tickets here.
The raffle starts with a $1000 jackpot and increases with every ticket purchased until sales close on August 16, 2021. The initiative is a fundraiser for the BC Hospitality Foundation - the only charity of its kind in Canada, with a mission of supporting hospitality and tourism workers in need.
·   5 for $10
·   20 for $20
·   150 for $40
The winning name will be drawn at noon on August 17. Please support our hospitality and tourism sector by purchasing tickets and spreading the word about the raffle among your friends, family, and colleagues!
Funds raised by the event will be used by the BCHF to support hospitality industry workers facing financial crisis due to a serious health condition experienced by themselves or a family member. The registered charity also administers a scholarship program that fosters the development of the next generation of hospitality industry workers and leaders.
Learn more and purchase tickets here.
Fore the Love of Tourism 15th Annual TIP Invitational Golf Tournament 2021

Join Partners in Tourism (TIP) at the beautiful Fairmont Chateau Whistler Golf Club Friday, August 27, 2021 for the 15th Annual Fore the Love of Tourism TIP Invitational Golf Tournament.
Partners in Tourism – TIP Society was established in 2006 with the goal of fostering future generations of tourism professionals. Never has that been more important.

We are now seeing signs of recovery and in our collective spirit of optimism, we are again gathering for the Tourism Industry Partners (TIP) Invitational Golf Tournament to raise funds to support scholarships and awards to get the next generation back in the hospitality game.
Since its inception, Partners in Tourism – TIP has provided funding in excess of $700,000 to support training, the purchase of equipment and financial assistance to hospitality students. The need has never been greater. 
Let’s TIP the scales in favour of up-and-coming tourism and hotel professionals.
Tipping Our Hat to Industry!
Have News or A Congrats You'd Like to Share? Contact Kelsey@bcha.com
Congratulation to Harbour Air on the Inagural Flight of their new Vancouver-Kelowna Route
On Friday, July 23 the first Harbour Air flight from Vancouver to Kelowna touched down on Okanagan Lake at the Eldorado Resort. The Cessna Caravan holds nine people, and several people arrived on the morning of to spend the weekend in the city. You too can take advantage of this unique opportunity as the route will operate from now until September 6th, 2021.

Weekly Flight Schedule: 
Depart Vancouver at 10:15am. 
Arrive at Eldorado Marina at 11:20am
Depart Eldorado Marina at 12:15pm
Arrive in Vancouver at 1:20pm. 
Former Hotel Manager, Andrea Proske, Picks Up a Gold Medal at Tokyo 2020!

A very big congratulation are in order for Langley native and former Hotel Manager, Andrea Proske. Just this week, Proske and her Team Canada teammates took home the gold medal in women's eight rowing. Proske commemorated the victory posting the image to the left with a simple caption: "Olympic Champions".

Congrats to Proske, the entire women's rowing team and all other Canadian olympians making us all very proud at this year's games.

Go team Canada!
In The News

Tourism’s great awakening is on — visitors are pouring into Victoria, and the streets and harbour are getting lively again.

Fully vaccinated Americans start arriving on Monday by land and air — and likely within a month by ferries and yachts.

But, behind the scenes, a labour crisis is brewing in the hospitality industry.
Reid James, general manager of the Hotel Grand Pacific — one of Victoria largest — puts it like this: “We can’t sell rooms we can’t clean.”

There’s a shortage of housekeeping staff across the industry, with many flocking to health care and seniors’ homes for more stable employment. And that means only 80% of the Hotel Grand Pacific’s 304 rooms will be ­available on weekends, and about 50% during the week.

It’s the same for front-desk staff, servers, chefs, cooks, dishwashers and table bussers.
Restaurants and hotels — already at the mercy of unpredictable supply chains and rising prices — are operating at a reduced capacity because of low staffing levels, said Grant Olson, who runs the Strathcona Hotel and entertainment complex with several pubs and restaurants downtown.

The federal government will launch its promised B.C. economic development agency with regional offices in the northeast, the northwest, the Kootenays, Okanagan, and on Vancouver Island, Economic Development Minister Melanie Joly announced today.

It will add a Lower Mainland office in Surrey to be called Pacific Economic Development, Joly said, which will have $553 million in post-pandemic assistance to work with over the next five years.

Last December, Joly unveiled Ottawa’s plan to split the 34-year-old Western Economic Development agency into two entities, one for B.C. and one focused on the Prairies, bolstered by commitments from the 2021-22 budget, including a $110-million instalment for B.C.

The prospects for a swift tourism recovery have been dealt a blow in recent months as the Delta variant has spread rapidly across many parts of the world. While vaccination rates have continued growing in most developed countries, rising COVID-19 cases have forced some governments to reimpose restrictions or, at the very least, slow plans for reopening their economies.

With summer holiday season now upon us, there are growing calls for proof of vaccination and continued uncertainties around travel guidance and requirements in many parts of the world. 

With this in mind, STR set out to examine current attitudes among global travelers. An online survey was conducted in July 2021 using STR’s Traveler Panel – an engaged audience of leisure and business travelers. This latest Tourism After Lockdown blog series follows similar research conducted in February 2021 and August 2020.

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