The Black Suffrage Movement
It was, and still is, limited through official and informal means of preventing voter fraud at every level of society (e.g. voting for dead people, altering absentee ballots). In other countries throughout history, all people including women, were able to obtain the right to vote through the course of national independence. However, black men in the United States did not gain the right to vote until after the Civil War.
In 1870, the
was ratified to prohibit states from denying a male citizen the right to vote based on “race, color or previous condition of servitude." It should be reiterated that "black suffrage" in the
in the aftermath of the
American Civil War
explicitly referred to the voting rights of black men only.
Black women still had many hurdles to face before obtaining this basic human right.
The passage of the
, which was ratified by the
United States Congress
on August 18 and then certified as law on August 26, 1920, technically granted women the right to vote.
However, the 19th Amendment did not initially extend to women of African American, Asian American, Hispanic American and American Indian heritage because of widespread enduring inequality and racism from within the ranks of the women's suffrage movement.
It wasn't until the Voting Rights Act was passed nearly a half century later, on August 6, 1965, that black women were officially allowed to exercise their right to vote.
A great book, entitled
by Dr. Charlene Butts Ligon, shares how a poor Norfolk, Virginia seamstress,
Evelyn T. Butts,
took on Jim Crow, and beat the poll tax for voting and became a forceful and courageous
champion who won a landmark U.S. Supreme Court case that
abolished poll tax
(FEARLESS can be found on Amazon).
With the struggles and tireless pursuits of VOTING Rights, civil right, and human rights of our ancestors, we encourage EVERYONE to exercise your powerful right to
Photos From Past Event and Announcements of Upcoming Events:
January 25, 2020: Barnes & Noble--Inner Harbor Baltimore--Discussion & Book Signing: