By Seamus Parfrey
Peter Gollwitzer, a New York University psychology professor, conducted studies in the 1990's to test implementation intentions.
In one study he asked his university students to write a report on how they had spent Christmas Eve no later than 48 hours after that day.
But he asked only half the students to write down just when and where they planned to work on the essay.
When he finished his study he found that of the students who didn't write down when and where only 32% successfully delivered their essay.