Archaeologist Dr. Douglas Petrovich is the source of most of the new evidence. A key to the success of his work is a more complete decipherment of the earliest inscriptions using an alphabet. This earliest alphabetic writing first appears in Egypt and Dr. Petrovich shows they are best deciphered as the first written form of Hebrew. These inscriptions started appearing shortly after the time Jacob entered Egypt with Joseph second in command over all but the pharaoh.
We will look at how these Hebrew inscriptions tie the Egyptian inscriptions and other evidence together and identify the Biblical characters in the course of the Biblical events. We will see how the Hebrew people descended from the top of the world as Joseph’s kinsmen to a despised and feared people subjugated by enslavement.
Who is Sobekemhat, to whose burial mastaba the Pharaoh brought offerings and listed the titles as “Member of the elite” (pharaoh’s inner circle), “Foremost of hand”, “Controller of the entire land”, and “He who has authority over every preeminent office”? And who is it that Sobekemhat appointed the ruler of Retjenu (people from the Levant). Who is Hebeded whose name means ”he who was disfavored” and was the brother of the Ruler of Retjenu? Hebeded made many expeditions to the turquoise mining area in the Sinai where he erected large engraved stone slabs documenting the expedition including a picture identifying himself at the bottom. One of these engraved pictures announces, “ 6 Levantines: Hebrews of Bethel, the Beloved”. The young man leading Hebeded’s donkey is identified as “Shekam”.
We will also look at the excavations of the area in Avaris where Jacob and his clan was settled. There is strong evidence that Jacob’s house and family cemetery has been identified all of which is distinctly Levantine in style and construction. Immediately above this archaeological stratum is a dual Levantine house that was progressively expanded into a Egyptian styled palace. In grave three of the cemetery a seal ring was found identifying Hebeded as the brother of the “Ruler of Retjenu” who was appointed by Sobekemhat.
Late in the Second Intermediary Period of Egypt the Pharaohs gathered the strength to eject the Hyksos invaders who had forcefully taken control of much of Egypt and put their capital near Avaris, much of that area was destroyed. Later still in the mid 1200’s BC of the New Kingdom, Rameses build a large fortified district of temples and palaces and support facilities near and partly over Avaris and named it Pi-Rameses. This is the name for this location that appears in the Bible. Likely Moses wrote the name Avaris but later scribes changed that name to Rameses because that is the place name in use at the time. That name change has caused many to falsely conclude that Rameses II was the pharaoh of the Exodus. However, the hypothesis that Rameses II is the Exodus pharaoh requires several additional inventions to fit with the historical time intervals specified in the Bible. It is time to recognize the evidence that Avaris was abandoned at the Exodus in 1446 BC. Around two hundred years later Rameses built there because the location is strategically important for military security and for trade.
My discussion above is just a start on the big picture Petrovich has produced. This body of knowledge is far beyond what is commonly know or taught. It is a shame that more professionals are not paying attention; some have refused to read his work or even accept a visit to discuss it personally. It is also disappointing that more Christian leaders are not become aware.
Join us at the GHCA webinar via Zoom on December 3rd at 7 pm.
Just click the link here or above a little before the start time of 7 pm.
Frank Mayo, President
Greater Houston Creation Association
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