Some droughts occur with such rapid onset that it seems as if they appear in a “flash,” rendering them and their consequences hard to predict and prepare for. These flash droughts can have substantial agricultural and economic consequences, including billions of dollars in losses. Notable flash droughts over the past several years have included the Central U.S. in 2012, Northern Plains in 2017, and Southeast U.S. in 2016 and 2019. NIDIS held a virtual workshop in December 2020 to explore characteristics and definitions of flash drought, and to coordinate and co-develop a research agenda to address its associated management challenges. This report describes the workshop’s key takeaways and provides a list of priority actions to help both NIDIS and the broader research community advance flash drought research activities and tool development. Additionally, NIDIS held a webinar on August 3 recapping the report.